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THE LIBRARY - 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 
OF CALIFORNIA 

LOS ANGELES 



GIFT OF 



COMMODORE BYRON MCCANDLESS 



HISTORICAL RECORD 



THE EIGHTEENTH, 



THE ROYAL IRISH REGIMENT OF FOOT; 



CONTAINING 



AN ACCOUNT OF THE FORMATION OF THE REGIMENT 
IN 1684, 

AND OF ITS SUBSEQUENT SERVICES 
TO 1848. 



COMPILED BY 

RICHARD CANNON, ESQ., 

ADJUTANT-GENERAL'S OFFICE, HORSE GUARDS. 



LONDON : 
PARKER, FURNIVALL, & PARKER, 

30, CHARING CROSS. 



MDCCCXLVJII. 



LONDON: PRINTED BY w. CLOWES AND SONS, STAMFORD STREET, 

FOR HER MAJESTV'3 STATIONERY OFFICE. 



GENERAL ORDERS. 



HORSE-GUARDS, 

1st January, 1836. 

His MAJESTY has been pleased to command that, 
with the view of doing the fullest justice to Regi- 
ments, as well as to Individuals who have dis- 
tinguished themselves by their Bravery in Action 
with the Enemy, an Account of the Services of 
every Regiment in the British Army shall be pub- 
lished under the superintendence and direction of 
the Adjutant-General ; and that this Account shall 
contain the following particulars, viz. : 

The Period and Circumstances of the Original 

Formation of the Regiment ; The Stations at which it 
has been from time to time employed ; The Battles, 
Sieges, and other Military Operations in which it has 
been engaged, particularly specifying any Achieve- 
ment it may have performed, and the Colours, 
Trophies, &c., it may have captured from the 
Enemy. 

The Names of the Officers, and the number of 

Non-Commissioned Officers and Privates Killed or 
Wounded by the Enemy, specifying the place and 
Date of the Action. 

a 



' 



11 GENERAL ORDERS. 

The Names of those Officers who, in con- 
sideration of their Gallant Services and Meritorious 
Conduct in Engagements with the Enemy, have 
been distinguished with Titles, Medals, or other 
Marks of His Majesty's gracious favour. 

The Names of all such Officers, Non-Com- 
mission ed Officers, and Privates, as may have 
specially signalized themselves in Action. 

And, 

The Badges and Devices which the Regi- 
ment may have been permitted to bear, and the 
Causes on account of which such Badges or Devices, 
or any other Marks of Distinction, have been 
granted. 

By Command of the Right Honorable 

GENERAL LORD HILL, 

Commanding -in- Chief. 



JOHN MACDONALD, 
Adjutant- General. 



PREFACE. 



THE character and credit of the British Army must 
chiefly depend upon the zeal and ardour by which 
all who enter into its service are animated, and 
consequently it is of the highest importance that any 
measure calculated to excite the spirit of emulation, 
by which alone great and gallant actions are achieved, 
should be adopted. 

Nothing can more fully tend to the accomplishment 
of this desirable object than a full display of the noble 
deeds with which the Military History of our country 
abounds. To hold forth these bright examples to 
the imitation of the youthful soldier, and thus to 
incite him to emulate the meritorious conduct of those 
who have preceded him in their honorable career, 
are among the motives that have given rise to the 
present publication. 

The operations of the British Troops are, indeed, 
announced in the " London Gazette," from whence 
they are transferred into the public prints: the 
achievements of our armies are thus made known at 
the time of their occurrence, and receive the tribute 

a "2 



IV PREFACE. 

of praise and admiration to which they are entitled. 
On extraordinary occasions, the Houses of Parliament 
have been in the habit of conferring on the Com- 
manders, and the Officers and Troops acting under 
their orders, expressions of approbation and of thanks 
for their skill and bravery ; and these testimonials, 
confirmed by the high honour of their Sovereign's 
approbation, constitute the reward which the soldier 
most highly prizes. 

It has not, however, until late years, been the prac- 
tice (which appears to have long prevailed in some of 
the Continental armies) for British Regiments to keep 
regular records of their services and achievements. 
Hence some difficulty has been experienced in obtain- 
ing, particularly from the old Regiments, an au- 
thentic account of their origin and subsequent services. 

This defect will now be remedied, in consequence 
of His Majesty having been pleased to command 
that every Regiment shall, in future, keep a full and 
ample record of its services at home and abroad. 

From the materials thus collected, the country 
will henceforth derive information as to the difficulties 
and privations which chequer the career of those who 
embrace the military profession. In Great Britain, 
where so large a number of persons are devoted to 
the active concerns of agriculture, manufactures, 
and commerce, and where these pursuits have, for so 



PREFACE. V 

long a period, being undisturbed by the presence of 
war, which few other countries have escaped, com- 
paratively little is known of the vicissitudes of active 
service and of the casualties of climate, to which, 
even during peace, the British Troops are exposed in 
every part of the globe, with little or no interval of 
repose. 

In their tranquil enjoyment of the blessings which 
the country derives from the industry and the enter- 
prise of the agriculturist and the trader, its happy 
inhabitants may be supposed not often to reflect on 
the perilous duties of the soldier and the sailor, on 
their sufferings, and on the sacrifice of valuable life, 
by which so many national benefits are obtained and 
preserved. 

The conduct of the British Troops, their valour, 
and endurance, have shone conspicuously under great 
and trying difficulties ; and their character has been 
established in Continental warfare by the irresistible 
spirit with which they have effected debarkations in 
spite of the most formidable opposition, and by the 
gallantry and steadiness with which they have main- 
tained their advantages against superior numbers. 

In the official Reports made by the respective Com- 
manders, ample justice has generally been done to 
the gallant exertions of the Corps employed; but 
the details of their services and of acts of individual 



VI PREFACE. 

bravery can only be fully given in the Annals of the 
various Regiments. 

These Records are now preparing for publication, 
under his Majesty's special authority, by Mr. 
RICHARD CANNON, Principal Clerk of the Adjutant 
General's Office ; and while the perusal of them can- 
not fail to be useful and interesting to military men 
of every rank, it is considered that they will also 
afford entertainment and information to the general 
reader, particularly to those who may have served in 
the Army, or who have relatives in the Service. 

There exists in the breasts of most of those who 
have served, or are serving, in the Army, an Esprit 
de Corps an attachment to everything belonging 
to their Regiment ; to such persons a narrative of 
the services of their own Corps cannot fail to prove 
interesting. Authentic accounts of the actions of 
the great, the valiant, the loyal, have always been 
of paramount interest with a brave and civilized 
people. Great Britain has produced a race of heroes 
who, in moments of danger and terror, have stood 
" firm as the rocks of their native shore :" and when 
half the world has been arrayed against them, they 
have fought the battles of their Country with un- 
shaken fortitude. It is presumed that a record of 
achievements in war, victories so complete and sur- 
prising, gained by our countrymen, our brothers, 



PREFACE. Vll 

our fellow citizens in arras, a record which revives 
the memory of the brave, and brings their gallant 
deeds before us, will certainly prove acceptable to 
the public. 

Biographical Memoirs of the Colonels and other 
distinguished Officers will be introduced in the 
Records of their respective Regiments, and the 
Honorary Distinctions which have, from time to 
time, been conferred upon each Regiment, as testify- 
ing the value and importance of its services, will be 
faithfully set forth. 

As a convenient mode of Publication, the Record 
of each Regiment will be printed in a distinct num- 
ber, so that when the whole shall be completed, the 
Parts may be bound up in numerical succession. 



INTRODUCTION 



THE INFANTRY. 



THE natives of Britain have, at all periods, been 
celebrated for innate courage and unshaken firmness, 
and the national superiority of the British troops 
over those of other countries has been evinced in 
the midst of the most imminent perils. History con- 
tains so many proofs of extraordinary acts of bravery, 
that no doubts can be raised upon the facts which 
are recorded. It must therefore be admitted, that 
the distinguishing feature of the British soldier is 
INTREPIDITY. This quality was evinced by the 
inhabitants of England when their country was 
invaded by Julius Caesar with a Roman army, on 
which occasion the undaunted Britons rushed into 
the sea to attack the Roman soldiers as they de- 
scended from their ships ; and, although their dis- 
cipline and arms were inferior to those of their 
adversaries, yet their fierce and dauntless bearing 
intimidated the flower of the Roman troops, in- 
cluding Caesar's favourite tenth legion. Their arms 
consisted of spears, short swords, and other weapons 
of rude construction. They had chariots, to the 



X INTRODUCTION 

axles of which were fastened sharp pieces of iron 
resembling scythe-blades, and infantry in long 
chariots resembling waggons, who alighted and 
fought on foot, and for change of ground, pursuit 
or retreat, sprang into the chariot and drove off 
with the speed of cavalry. These inventions were, 
however, unavailing against Cesar's legions : in 
the course of time a military system, with dis- 
cipline and subordination, was introduced, and 
British courage, being thus regulated, was exerted 
to the greatest advantage ; a full development of 
the national character followed, and it shone forth 
in all its native brilliancy. 

The military force of the Anglo-Saxons consisted 
principally of infantry: Thanes, and other men of 
property, however, fought on horseback. The 
infantry were of two classes, heavy and light. 
The former carried large shields armed with spikes, 
long broad swords and spears ; and the latter were 
armed with swords or spears only. They had also 
men armed with clubs, others with battle-axes and 
javelins. 

The feudal troops established by William the 
Conqueror consisted (as already stated in the Intro- 
duction to the Cavalry) almost entirely of horse ; 
but when the warlike barons and knights, with their 
trains of tenants and vassals, took the field, a pro- 
portion of men appeared on foot, and, although 
these were of inferior degree, they proved stout- 
hearted Britons of stanch fidelity. When stipen- 
diary troops were employed, infantry always con- 
stituted a considerable portion of the military force ; 



TO THE INFANTRY. XI 

and this arme has since acquired, in every quarter 
of the globe, a celebrity never exceeded by the 
armies of any nation at any period. 

The weapons carried by the infantry, during the 
several reigns succeeding the Conquest, were bows 
and arrows, half-pikes, lances, halberds, various 
kinds of battle-axes, swords, and daggers. Armour 
was worn on the head and body, and in course of 
time the practice became general for military men 
to be so completely cased in steel, that it was 
almost impossible to slay them. 

The introduction of the use of gunpowder in the 
destructive purposes of war, in the early part of the 
fourteenth century, produced a change in the arms 
and equipment of the infantry-soldier. Bows and 
arrows gave place to various kinds of fire-arms, but 
British archers continued formidable adversaries ; 
and, owing to the inconvenient construction and im- 
perfect bore of the fire-arms when first introduced, 
a body of men, well trained in the use of the bow 
from their youth, was considered a valuable acqui- 
sition to every army, even as late as the sixteenth 
century. 

During a great part of the reign of Queen Eliza- 
beth each company of infantry usually consisted of 
men armed five different ways ; in every hundred 
men forty were "men-at-arms" and sixty "shot;" 
the " men-at-arms" were ten halberdiers, or battle- 
axe men, and thirty pikemen ; and the " shot" were 
twenty archers, twenty musketeers, and twenty 
harquebusiers, and each man carried, besides his 
principal weapon, a sword and dagger. 



XI 1 INTRODUCTION 

Companies of infantry varied at this period in. 
numbers from 150 to 300 men; each company had 
a colour or ensign, and the mode of formation re- 
commended by an English military writer (Sir John 
Smithe) in 1590 was : the colour in the centre of 
the company guarded by the halberdiers ; the pike- 
men in equal proportions, on each flank of the 
halberdiers : half the musketeers on each flank of 
the pikes ; half the archers on each flank of the mus- 
keteers, and the harquebusiers (whose arms were 
much lighter than the muskets then in use) in equal 
proportions on each flank of the company for skirmish- 
ing.* It was customary to unite a number of com- 
panies into one body, called a REGIMENT, which 
frequently amounted to three thousand men: but 
each company continued to carry a colour. Nume- 
rous improvements were eventually introduced in the 
construction of fire-arms, and, it having been found 
impossible to make armour proof against the muskets 
then in use (which carried a very heavy ball) without 
its being too weighty for the soldier, armour was 
gradually laid aside by the infantry in the seven- 
teenth century : bows and arrows also fell into dis- 
use, and the infantry were reduced to two classes, 
viz.: musketeers, armed with matchlock muskets, 



A company of 200 men would appear thus : 

cl 



I 



20 20 20 30 20 30 20 20 20 

Harquebuses. Archers. Muskets. Pikes. Halberds. Pikes. Muskets. Archers. Harquebuses. 

The musket carried a ball which weighed ^th of a pound ; and the 
harquebus a ball which weighed ^th of a pound. 



TO THE INFANTRY. Xlll 

swords, and daggers ; and pikemen, armed with pikes 
from fourteen to eighteen feet long, and swords. 

In the early part of the seventeenth century 
Gustavus Adolphus, King of Sweden, reduced the 
strength of regiments to 1000 men. He caused the 
gunpowder, which had heretofore been carried in 
flasks, or in small wooden bandoliers, each contain- 
ing a charge, to be made up into cartridges, and 
carried in pouches ; and he formed each regiment 
into two wings of musketeers, and a centre division 
of pikemen. He also adopted the practice of form- 
ing four regiments into a brigade ; and the number 
of colours was afterwards reduced to three in each 
regiment. He formed his columns so compactly that 
his infantry could resist the charge of the celebrated 
Polish horsemen and Austrian cuirassiers ; and his 
armies became the admiration of other nations. His 
mode of formation was copied by the English, 
French, and other European states ; but so great 
was the prejudice in favour of ancient customs, that 
all his improvements were not adopted until near a 
century afterwards. 

In 1664 King Charles II. raised a corps for sea- 
service, styled the Admiral's regiment. In 1678 
each company of 100 men usually consisted of 30 
pikemen, 60 musketeers, and 10 men armed with 
light firelocks. In this year the King added a com- 
pany of men armed with hand-grenades to each of 
the old British regiments, which was designated the 
" grenadier company." Daggers were so contrived 
as to fit in the muzzles of the muskets, and bayonets 



INTRODUCTION 

similar to those at present in use were adopted about 
twenty years afterwards. 

An Ordnance regiment was raised in 1685, by 
order of King James II., to guard the artillery, and 
was designated the Royal Fusiliers (now 7th Foot). 
This corps, and the companies of grenadiers, did 
not carry pikes. 

King William III. incorporated the Admiral's 
regiment in the second Foot Guards, and raised 
two Marine regiments for sea-service. During the 
war in this reign, each company of infantry (ex- 
cepting the fusiliers and grenadiers) consisted of 14 
pikemen and 46 musketeers; the captains carried 
pikes ; lieutenants, partisans ; ensigns, half-pikes ; 
and Serjeants, halberds. After the peace in 1697 the 
Marine regiments were disbanded, but were again 
formed on the breaking out of the war in 1702.* 

During the reign of Queen Anne the pikes were 
laid aside, and every infantry soldier was armed 
with a musket, bayonet, and sword ; the grenadiers 
ceased, about the same period, to carry hand gre- 
nades ; and the regiments were directed to lay aside 
their third colour : the corps of Royal Artillery was 
first added to the Army in this reign. 

About the year 1745, the men of the battalion 
companies of infantry ceased to carry swords ; during 

* The 30th, 31st, and 32nd Regiments were formed as Marine corps 
in 1702, and were employed as such during the wars in the reign of 
Queen Anne. The Marine corps were embarked in the Fleet under 
Admiral Sir George Rooke, and were at the taking of Gibraltar, and 
in its subsequent defence in 1704 ; they were afterwards employed at 
the siege of Barcelona in 1705. 



TO THE INFANTRY. XV 

the reign of George II. light companies were added 
to infantry regiments; and in 1764 a Board of 
General Officers recommended that the grenadiers 
should lay aside their swords, as that weapon had 
never heen used during the Seven Years' War. Since 
that period the arms of the infantry soldier have been 
limited to the musket and bayonet. 

The arms and equipment of the British Troops have 
seldom differed materially, since the Conquest, from 
those of other European states ; and in some respects 
the arming has, at certain periods, been allowed to 
be inferior to that of the nations with whom they 
have had to contend ; yet, under this disadvantage, 
the bravery and superiority of the British infantry 
have been evinced on very many and most trying 
occasions, and splendid victories have been gained 
over very superior numbers. 

Great Britain has produced a race of lion-like 
champions who have dared to confront a host of 
foes, and have proved themselves valiant with any 
arms. At Crecy King Edward III., at the head of 
about 30,000 men, defeated, on the 26th of August, 
1346, Philip King of France, whose army is said to 
have amounted to 100,000 men ; here British valour 
encountered veterans of renown : the King of Bo- 
hemia, the King of Majorca, and many princes and 
nobles were slain, and the French army was routed 
and cut to pieces. Ten years afterwards, Edward 
Prince of Wales, who was designated the Black 
Prince, defeated, at Poictiers, with 14,000 men, 
a French army of 60,000 horse, besides infantry, 
and took John I., King of France, and his son 



XVI INTRODUCTION 

Philip, prisoners. On the 25th of October, 1415, 
King Henry V., with an army of about 13,000 
men, although greatly exhausted by marches, pri- 
vations, and sickness, defeated, at Agineourt, the 
Constable of France, at the head of the flower of 
the French nobility and an army said to amount to 
60,000 men, and gained a complete victory. 

During the seventy years' war between the United 
Provinces of the Netherlands and the Spanish mo- 
narchy, which commenced in 1578 and terminated 
in 1648, the British infantry in the service of the 
States-General were celebrated for their uncon- 
querable spirit and firmness;* and in the thirty 
years' war between the Protestant Princes and the 
Emperor of Germany, the British Troops in the ser- 
vice of Sweden and other states were celebrated for 
deeds of heroism. f In the wars of Queen Anne, 
the fame of the British army under the great 
MARLBOROUGH was spread throughout the world ; 
and if we glance at the achievements performed 
within the memory of persons now living, there is 
abundant proof that the Britons of the present age 
are not inferior to their ancestors in the qualities 



* The brave Sir Roger Williams, in his Discourse on War, printed 
in 1590, observes : " I persuade myself ten thousand of our nation 
would beat thirty thousand of theirs (the Spaniards) out of the field, 
let them be chosen where they list." Yet at this time the Spanish 
infantry was allowed to be the best disciplined in Europe. For 
instances of valour displayed by the British Infantry during the 
Seventy Years' War, see the Historical Record of the Third Foot, or 
Buffs. 

f Vide the Historical Record of the First, or Royal ,'Regiment of 
Foot. 



TO THE INFANTRY. XV11 

which constitute good soldiers. Witness the deeds 
of the brave men, of whom there are many now 
surviving, who fought in Egypt in 1801, under the 
brave Abercromby, and compelled the French army, 
which had been vainly styled Invincible, to eva- 
cuate that country; also the services of the gallant 
Troops during the arduous campaigns in the Penin- 
sula, under the immortal WELLINGTON ; and the 
determined stand made by the British Army at 
Waterloo, where Napoleon Bonaparte, who had 
long been the inveterate enemy of Great Britain, 
and had sought and planned her destruction by 
every means he could devise, was compelled to 
leave his vanquished legions to their fate, and to 
place himself at the disposal of the British Govern- 
ment. These achievements, with others of recent 
dates in the distant climes of India, prove that the 
same valour and constancy which glowed in the 
breasts of the heroes of Crecy, Poictiers, Agincourt, 
Blenheim, and Kamilies, continue to animate the 
Britons of the nineteenth century. 

The British Soldier is distinguished for a robust 
and muscular frame, intrepidity which no danger 
can appal, unconquerable spirit and resolution, 
patience in fatigue and privation, and cheerful obe- 
dience to his superiors. These qualities, united with 
an excellent system of order and discipline to regu- 
late and give a skilful direction to the energies and 
adventurous spirit of the hero, and a wise selection 
of officers of superior talent to command, whose 
presence inspires confidence, have been the leading 
causes of the splendid victories gained by the British 

b 



XV111 INTRODUCTION 

arms.* The fame of the deeds of the past and 
present generations in the various battle-fields where 
the robust sons of Albion have fought and conquered, 
surrounds the British arms with a halo of glory ; 
these achievements will live in the page of history to 
the end of time. 

The records of the several regiments will be found 
to contain a detail of facts of an interesting character, 
connected with the hardships, sufferings, and gallant 
exploits of British soldiers in the various parts of the 
world, where the calls of their Country and the com- 
mands of their Sovereign have required them to 
proceed in the execution of their duty, whether in 



* " Under the blessing of Divine Providence, His Majesty ascribes 
the successes which have attended the exertions of his troops in Egypt to 
that determined bravery whkh is inherent in Britons ; but His Majesty 
desires it may be most solemnly and forcibly impressed.on the consideration, 
of every part of the army, that it has been a strict observance of order, 
discipline, and military system, which has given the full energy to the 
native valour of the troops, and has enabled them proudly to assert the 
superiority of the national military character, in situations uncommonly 
arduous, and under circumstances of peculiar difficulty." General 
Orders in 1801. 

In the General Orders issued by Lieut.-General Sir John Hope (after- 
wards Lord Hopetoun), congratulating the army upon the successful result 
of the Battle of Corunna, on the 16th of January, 1809, it is stated : " On 
no occasion has the undaunted valour of British troops ever been more 
manifest. At the termination of a severe and harassing march, ren- 
dered necessary by the superiority which the enemy had acquired, and 
which had materially impaired the efficiency of the troops, many disad- 
vantages were to be encountered. These have all been surmounted by 
the conduct of the troops themselves ; and the enemy has been taught, 
that, whatever advantages of position or of numbers he may possess, there 
is inherent in the British officers and soldiers a bravery that knows not 
how to yield, that no circumstances can appal, and that will ensure 
victory, when it is to be obtained by the exertion of any human means." 



TO THE INFANTRY. xix 

active continental operations, or in maintaining colo- 
nial territories in distant and unfavourable climes. 

The superiority of the British infantry has been 
pre-eminently set forth in the wars of six centuries, 
and admitted by the greatest commanders which 
Europe has produced. The formations and move- 
ments of this arme, as at present practised, while 
they are adapted to every species of warfare, and to 
all probable situations and circumstances of service, 
are well suited to show forth the brilliancy of military 
tactics calculated upon mathematical and scientific 
principles. Although the movements and evolutions 
have been copied from the continental armies, yet 
various improvements have from time to time been 
introduced, to ensure that simplicity and celerity by 
which the superiority of the national military cha- 
racter is maintained. The rank and influence which 
Great Britain has attained among the nations of the 
world have in a great measure been purchased by 
the valour of the Army, and to persons who have the 
welfare of their country at heart the records of the 
several regiments cannot fail to prove interesting. 



b 2 



THE EIGHTEENTH, 



THE ROYAL IRISH REGIMENT OF FOOT, 

BEAIIS ON THE REGIMENTAL COLOUR 

"THE HARP AND CROWN," 

AS THE BADGES OF DISTINCTION CONNECTED WITH ITS ROYAL TITLE ; 

THE ARMS OF NASSAU, 

WITH THE MOTTO 

" VIRTUTIS NAMURCENSIS PREMIUM," 

AS A LASTING TESTIMONY OF THE GALLANTRY DISPLAYED IN THE STORMING 

AND CAPTURE OF THE CASTLE OF NAMUR IN 1695 IN THE 

PRESENCE OF HIS MAJESTY KING WILLIAM III. ; 

THE WORD " EGYPT " WITH THE SPHINX," 

IN COMMEMORATION OF ITS DISTINGUISHED SERVICES IN THE EXPULSION OF 
THE FRENCH ARMY FROM EGYPT IN THE YEAR 1801 ; 

AND 

THE WORD " CHINA " WITH THE " DRAGON," 

FOR ITS SERVICES IN THE WAR WITH CHINA FROM 1840 TO 1842. 



a2 



EIGHTEENTH, 

OR 

THE ROYAL IRISH REGIMENT OF FOOT. 

CONTENTS 

OF THE 

HISTORICAL RECORD. 



1684 Formation of the regiment in Ireland . . 1 

Arthur Earl of Granard appointed to be Colonel 2 

1685 Decease of King Charles II. . 

Accession of King James II. 

Rebellion of the Duke of Monmouth 

Embarkation of the regiment for England 

Capture and execution of the Duke of Monmouth 

Regiment re-embarked for Ireland 

1686 Proceedings in Ireland in favour of the Roman 

Catholics .... .3 
Arthur Lord Forbes appointed Colonel in suc- 
cession to the Earl of Granard - 

1687 Encamped on the Curragh of Kildare 

1688 Embarked for England . . ... 4 

The Prince of Orange arrived from Holland . 

Adhesion of a certain number of the officers and 

soldiers to the Protestant cause . . 5 

The Protestant officers and soldiers marched 

into Hertfordshire with the regiment . 6 

The Irish Roman Catholic soldiers sent to the 

Isle of Wight ... 



xxvi CONTENTS. 

YEAR PAO* 

1688 Lord Forbes retired from the service, and suc- 

ceeded in the Colonelcy by Sir John Edge- 
worth ........ 6 

- Colonel Talbot, Earl Tyrconnel, ap- 
pointed by King James II. as Lord-lieutenant 
of Ireland ...... 

The Prince of Orange elevated to the throne 

with the title of King William III. . 

1689 Regiment marched to Chester 

Sir John Edgeworth deprived of his commission, 

and succeeded in the Colonelcy by Edward 
Earl of Meath 

Arrival of King James II. in Ireland, with 

troops from France .... 7 

King William III. assembled an army at Chester 

Regiment marched to Highlake, and embarked 

for Ireland ...... 

Engaged at the siege of Carrickfergus 

Encamped at Dundalk .... 

Quartered at Lisburn during the winter . . 

1690 King William III. arrived in Ireland and as- 

sumed the command of the army . 

Battle of the Boyne , . . . 

Marched to Dublin, and reviewed at Finglass . 8 

Detached against Castle Connell . 

Engaged in an unsuccessful assault upon Limerick _ 

Siege of Limerick raised .... 9 

Marched towards Mullingar .... 

Proceeded to the relief of Birr 

Stationed at Mullingar during the winter 

1691 Detachment advanced towards Dunmore . 

Quitted Mullingar, and engaged in the siege of 

Ballymore ...... 10 

Engaged in the siege of Athlone . f ; 

at the battle of Aghrim . . , 

Marched against Gal way . , . . 11 

Engaged in the siege and capture of Limerick . 

Termination of hostilities in Ireland 



CONTENTS. xxvii 

YEAR VAOK 

1692 Regiment embarked for England . . . 11 

Naval action off La Hogue, and French fleet 

nearly destroyed ...... 

Menace of French invasion ceased . . . 12 

Projected expedition to the coast of France 

- Certain regiments ordered to Flanders 

- Regiment landed at Ostend .... 
Capture of Furnes and Dixmude . 

Re-embarked for England .... 

Lieut. -Colonel F. Hamilton promoted to the Co- 

lonelcy in succession to the Earl of Meath, retired 

1693 Embarked as Marines on board the fleet . 

Disembarked and proceeded to Norwich . . 13 

Marched to London, and reviewed by King- 
William III. in Hyde Park 

Embarked for Ostend ..... 

1694 Proceeded to Lou vain . . . . . 14 

Engaged in the siege of Huy 

Marched into winter quarters at Ghent . . 

Rank of the regiment fixed as EIGHTEENTH of 

the infantry of the line . . . . 15 

1695 Engaged at the siege of Namur 

in storming the castle of Namur . 16 

King William III. conferred on the regiment 

the title of the ROYAL REGIMENT OF FOOT 

OF IRELAND, With the HARP IN A BLUE FIELD 

AND THE CROWN OVER IT, the privilege of 
bearing his own arms, THE LION OF NA$|AU, 
on its colours ; with the motto *V$rlutis 
Namurcensis Premium . . . . 17 

Title afterwards changed to " THE ROYAL IRISH 

REGIMENT OF FOOT " . . . . 18 

Surrender of the fortress of Namur 

Marched into winter quarters at Ghent . 

1696 Served under the Prince of Vaudemont . 

Returned to Ghent ..... 

1697 Joined the army of Brabant under King William 

III. - 



xxviu CONTENTS. 

YEAR PAGE 

1697 Termination of the war, and treaty of Ryswick 19 

Embarked at Ostend for Ireland . 

Arrived at Cork ..... 

1699 Marched to Waterford, thence to Dublin 

1 700 Removed to Kinsale ..... 

1701 Hostilities recommenced with France . . 20 

Embarked for Holland .... 

Reviewed on Breda Heath by King William III. 

1702 Proceeded to Rosendael .... 

Engaged at the siege of Kayserswerth 

in skirmish near Nimeguen . . 

The Earl of Marlborough assumed the command 

of the allied army . . . . . 21 
- Engaged in the siege of Venloo 

Extraordinary attack of Fort St. Michael 

Engaged at the siege and capture of Ruremonde 24 

of Liege 



Retired to Holland, and entered winter quarters 

at Huesden ...... 

1703 Engaged at the siege and capture of Huy . 25 
at the siege and capture of Limburg . 

Marched to Breda . ... . 

1704 Proceeded from Breda to the Danube . . 

Joined the Imperial army .... 26 

Battle of Schellenberg .... 

Crossed the Danube ..... 

Siege and capture of Rayn .... 

Battle of Blenheim 27 

Marshal Tallard and many officers and soldiers 

made prisoners - .-,5 ... 
Returned to Holland . .<,. * . 28 

1705 General Ingoldsby appointed to be Colonel, in 

the place of General Hamilton (retired) . 29 

Marched to Maestricht . . ^ - . 

Engaged in the recapture of Huy . 

Passed the works of Helixem and Neer-Hespen 

Returned to winter quarters in Holland . . 30 

1706 Advanced to Tongres . . . i . 



CONTENTS. xxix 

YEAR PAOE 

1706 Battle of Ramilies 30 

Surrender of Brussels, Lierre, Ghent, Bruges, &c. 31 

of Oudenarde and Antwerp 

Siege and surrender of Ostend 

Attack and surrender of the fortress of Menin . 

Capture of the fortress of Aeth ... 32 

Returned to winter quarters at Ghent 

1707 Engaged in active field-movements 

1708 Re-embarked at Ostend for England to repel 

invasion by the Pretender ... 33 

Returned to Flanders ..... 

Recaptured Ghent and Bruges from the 

French ...... 

Battle of Oudenarde ..... 

Siege and surrender of Lisle ... 34 

1709 ofTournay . 

Battle of Malplaquet ..... 35 

Extraordinary collision between the two regi- 

ments called " Royal Regiments of Ireland :" 
one in the English service, the other in the 
French service, both regiments bearing the 
Irish Harp ...... 36 

Employed in the siege of Mons ... 37 

Marched into winter quarters in Ghent . 

1710 Engaged in forcing the lines at Pont-a-Vendin 
at the siege of Douay 



at the siege of Bethune 

at the siege of Aire 



Returned to Ghent 38 

1711 Passage of the French lines at Arleux . 

Siege and capture of Bouchain 

Marched into winter quarters at Lisle . . 40 

1712 Lieut.-Colonel Stearne promoted to be Colonel in 

succession to General Ingoldsby (deceased) 

Marched from Lisle, and encamped beyond 

Bouchain ...... 

Joined the army under the Duke of Ormond 

Suspension of hostilities .... 



xxx CONTENTS. 

YEAH PAGE 

1713 Rank of the Royal Irish Regiment as 18th 

regiment of foot in the English army, directed 
to take date from the time of its arrival in 
England, in 1688 40 

Conclusion of the treaty of peace at Utrecht . 

1714 Remained in the garrison of Ghent until the 

Barrier Treaty was signed . . . 41 

Reception of the Duke and Duchess of Marl- 

borough on passing through Ghent . 

1715 Returned to England on account of the rebellion 

of the Earl of Mar, leaving the Lieut.-Colonel 

and 100 men in the castle of Ghent . . 

Landed at Greenwich, marched to Gloucester, 

and thence to Oxford .... 

1716 Rencontre at Oxford, in consequence of acts of 

disloyalty evinced in that town 

1717 Marched to Portsmouth .... 42 

Lieut.-Colonel William Cosby promoted to the 

Colonelcy in succession to General Stearne, 
who retired ...... 

1718 Embarked for Minorca .... 
1727 Detachment of 500 men proceeded from Minorca 

to reinforce the garrison of Gibraltar, be- 
sieged by the Spaniards .... 

1732 Sir Charles Hotham, Bart., appointed to the 
Colonelcy in succession to General Cosby, 
appointed Governor - in - Chief of New 
York 

1735 Colonel John Armstrong appointed to the 
Colonelcy in succession to Sir Charles 
Hotham . . < , ,v t - 

1742 Colonel John Mordaunt appointed to the Colo- 
nelcy in succession to General Armstrong . 

Returned from Minorca to England ,*, 

1744 Reviewed on Hounslow Heath by Field -Marshal 

the Duke of Cumberland ... 43 

1745 Embarked for Flanders .:-.,.. . . i 

Landed at Ostend, and marched to Mons _. 44 



CONTENTS. xxxi 

YKAR PAGE 

1745 Re-embarked for England in consequence of 
Charles Edward, son of the Pretender, having 
landed in Scotland 4,5 

Landed at Gravesend, and embarked for Leith 

1747 ColonelJohn Folliott appointed to the Colonelcy 

in succession to General Sir J. Mordaunt . 4(> 

1748 Returned from Scotland to England 

Conclusion of the treaty of peace at Aix la 

Chapelle ...... 

1749 Embarked for Ireland ..... 
1751 Royal warrant issued for regulating the clothing, 

colours, &c. ...... 

1755 War recommenced with France . . . 47 

Embarked for England, marched to Edinburgh 

1757 Re-embarked for Ireland, and remained there 

during the Seven Years' War . 
1762 General Sir John Sebright, Bart., appointed to 

the Colonelcy in succession to General Folliott 

(deceased) ...... 

1767 Embarked from Ireland for North America 

1775 Commencement of war with America 

Engaged at the village of Lexington . . 48 

Proceeded to destroy American stores at Concord 

Engaged in the battle at Bunker's Hill . . 49 

1776 Quitted Boston and embarked for Nova Scotia . 

Embarked for England and stationed at Dover 

Castle 

1778 Encamped at Coxheath .... 

1779 at Warley 50 

1780 at Finchley .... 

1782 Termination of the American war . 

Embarked for Jersey .....- 

1783 Removed to Guernsey .... 

Engaged in quelling a mutiny in the 104th 

Regiment ...... 

Received the thanks of the Lieut.-Governor 

and of the States of the Island, accom- 
panied by one hundred guineas for distri- 



xxxii CONTENTS. 

YEAH T>AOK 

bution among the non-commissioned officers 
and soldiers, for their loyal and spirited 
conduct ...... 50 

1783 Proceeded to Portsmouth, and embarked for 
Gibraltar ...... 

1793 Embarked from Gibraltar to take possession of 

Toulon in aid of the French loyalists and in 
the name of Louis XVII. 

Evacuated Toulon after destroying the shipping, 

arsenal, and magazines .... 52 

1794 Embarked for the Island of Corsica 

Siege and capture of the town and fortress of 

Calvi 53 

. General Sir James Pulteney, Bart., appointed to 

the Colonelcy in succession to General Sir 

John Sebright, Bart., deceased . . 54 

1796 Withdrawn from the Island of Corsica . 

Proceeded to the Island of Elba . 

Embarked for the coast of Italy, and took pos- 
session of Campiglia, Castiglione, and 
Piombino ...... 

Re-embarked for Elba .... 55 

1797 Removed to Gibraltar .... 
1800 Embarked from Gibraltar for service in the 

Mediterranean ..... 

Proceeded to Minorca .... 

Sailed to Genoa to co-operate with the 

Austrians . .... 

Returned to Minorca ..... 

Embarked on an expedition against Cadiz 

Sailed to Gibraltar on the design of the expedi- 

tion being relinquished ... ' 

Proceeded again to Minorca 

Sailed to Malta, and joined the armament under 

Lieut.-General Sir Ralph Abercromby . 56 
- Sailed to Marmorice Bay . . . 

Proceeded to Alexandria, and anchored in the 

Bay of Aboukir . . . . 7 



CONTENTS. xxxii 

YEAR I'AOE 

1801 Landed at Aboukir ..... 56 

Advanced to Alexandria .... 57 

- Battle of Alexandria on the 21st of March . 58 

- Death of Sir Ralph Abercromby ... 

Proceeded to Rosetta ..... 
Captured Fort St. Julian .... 

Advanced up the banks of the Nile . . 

Engaged in operations at El Aft and Rahmanie 59 
Siege and capture of the city of Cairo . . 

Surrender of Alexandria, and expulsion of the 

French from Egypt .... 

Authorized to bear the Sphinx with the word 

Egypt . ... 

Proceeded to Malta ..... 60 

1802 Treaty of Peace concluded at Amiens 

Embarked for Ireland .... 

1803 War with France recommenced 

Augmented to two battalions 

Two battalions embarked for Scotland . . 

Received a complimentary letter from the 

magistrates and clergy of Haddington 

1804 Proceeded to England .... 

Landed at Ramsgate and encamped on Barham 

Downs ...... 61 

Second battalion embarked for Jersey 

1805 First battalion embarked for Jamaica 

1807 Second battalion embarked for Curatjoa . . 

1 809 First battalion embarked for St. Domingo 

St. Domingo surrendered by the French . . 62 

First battalion returned to Jamaica . 

1810 Second battalion embarked for England . . 
1811 proceeded to Jersey 

General Lord Hutchinson, afterwards Earl of 

Donoughmore, appointed to the Colonelcy in 
succession to General Sir James Pulteney, 
Bart., deceased , . 
1814 Termination of the war with France 

Disbandmerit of the second battalion r 



xxxiv CONTENTS. 

TEAR VAOE 

1817 Returned to England from Jamaica . . 63 

1817 Proceeded to Brighton .... 
Furnished the guard of H. R. H. the Prince 

Regent at the Pavilion .... 

1818 Marched to Gosport ..... 

Embarked for Ireland .... 

Received the thanks and approbation of the 

public authorities of several of the principal 
.places in Ireland ..... 

1820 Marched to Cork 

1821 Embarked for Malta 

1824 Embarked for the Ionian Islands ... 64 

Received the testimonial of General the Marquis 

of Hastings ...... 

1832 Embarked at Corfu for England ... 65 
Appointment of General Lord Aylraer to the 

Colonelcy in succession to General the Earl 

of Donoughmore, deceased 
1834 Embarked for Ireland ..... 

1837 Formed into Six Service and Four Depot Com- 

panies preparatory to embarkation for 
Foreign Service ..... 

Service companies embarked for Ceylon . 

1838 Depot companies embarked from Dublin for 

England ...... 

1 839 Removed from Colombo to Trincomalee . 

Three companies embarked from Portsmouth . 

1840 War commenced with China 

Six companies embarked from Ceylon for China 66 

Capture of the Island of Chusan ... 67 

city of Ting-hae-hien 

1 84 1 Possession taken of Hong-Kong 

Regiment sailed up the Canton river, and the 

City of Canton surrendered . . 69 

Capture of the Island and City of Amoy . . 70 

Island of Koolangsoo . . 

Island of Chusan again taken possession of . 71 

Capture of the City of Chinhae * ; ... 



CONTENTS. xxxv 

YEAR PAGE 

1841 Capture of the City of Ningpo ... 72 

1842 Four companies stationed at Ningpo, and five 

companies at Koolangsoo .... 

Defeat of the Tartars and Chinese in an attack 

upon Ningpo ..... 

Capture of Tsekee, and heights of Segaon . 73 

Forced the Chankee Pass .... 

Attack and capture of the city of Chapoo 

Employed on an expedition up the Yangtse- 

Keang river ...... 74 

Capture of Woosurig, Poonshau, and the city of 

Shanghae ... ... 

Capture of the city of Chin Keang-foo by storm 

Embarked for Nankin, the ancient Capital of 

China 75 

- Conditions of Peace agreed .... 

The word " China " and the device of the 

" Dragon " authorized to be borne on the 
colours and appointments ... 

Proceeded from Nankin to Chusan . 



1843 Head-quarters at Koolangsoo . . . 76 

removed to Chusan . . . 

1845 to Hong-Kong . . 

1847 Embarked at Hong- Kong, and engaged in opera- 

tions on the Canton River ... 

Returned to Hong-Kong .... 

Embarked for Calcutta ... . . 

1848 Arrived at Fort William, Bengal . ;"^, 

The Conclusion .... 77 



1848. 

PLATES. 

Colours of the Eighteenth, Royal Irish Regiment, 

to face 1 

Representation of the Battle of Blenheim, on the 13th 

August, 1704 ...... 28 

Costume of the Regiment ..... 80 



xxxvi CONTENTS. 



SUCCESSION OF COLONELS 



EIGHTEENTH, OR ROYAL IRISH REGIMENT 
OF FOOT. 



TEAR PAGE 

1684 Arthur, Viscount of Granard . . . 81 

1686 Arthur, Lord Forbes . . ..; . . 82 

1688 Sir John Edgeworth . . . . . 83 

1689 Edward, Earl of Meath . , 

1692 Frederick Hamilton . . . '. .' 84 

1705 Richard Ingoldsby . . .,. . . 85 

1712 Richard Stearne . .... 

1717 William Cosby . , . .-..', 87 

1732 Sir Charles Hotham, Bart. . . , 

1735 John Armstrong. <... = . 

1742 Sir John Mordaunt, K.B 88 

1747 John Folliott 89 

1762 Sir John Sebright, Bart. .... 
1794 Sir James Murray, Bart., afterwards Pulteney . 
1811 John Hely, Lord Hutchinson, K.B., afterwards 

Earl of Donoughmore .... 90 
1832 Matthew, Lord Aylmer . . . 91 



TI TM. . 

I MI SB JiU^nO 
Q> iff & E K S CCi'LQ TU IS, 




FOB CANNONS MILITARY RECORDS 



HISTORICAL RECORD 



THE EIGHTEENTH, 



ROYAL IRISH REGIMENT OF FOOT. 



THE ROYAL IRISH REGIMENT OF FOOT existed many 1684 
years, as independent companies of pikemen and mus- 
keteers on the establishment of Ireland, previous to 
the formation of the regiment in 1684 ; several of these 
companies having been in the service of the Common- 
wealth in the time of Oliver Cromwell. At the Re- 
storation in 1660, King Charles II. disbanded the army 
of the Commonwealth in England, and embodied several 
new corps. Little alteration was, however, made in 
the Irish forces, excepting the formation of a regiment 
of foot guards, called the " Royal Regiment of Ire- 
land," which, with about twenty independent troops of 
horse and eighty companies of foot, constituted the 
military force of Ireland. Towards the close of his 
reign, King Charles II. took particular interest in 
improving the organization of the military establish- 
ments of his dominions, and the Irish independent 
troops of horse were embodied into three regiments 
of cavalry ; at the same time the companies of foot were 



2 HISTORICAL RECORD OF THE EIGHTEENTH, OR 

1684 constituted seven regiments of infantry. The colonelcy 
of one of these corps was conferred on ARTHUR EARL 
or GRANARD, by commission dated the 1st of April, 
1684 ; it is the only one of these ten regiments which 
has continued in the service of the British crown ; and 
it now bears the title of the EIGHTEENTH, or the ROYAL 
IRISH REGIMENT OF FOOT.* 

1685 On the 6th of February, 1685, King Charles II. 
died, and was succeeded by his brother, James II.; 
and in June following James Duke of Monmouth 
erected the standard of rebellion in the west of Eng- 
land, and asserted his own pretensions to the throne. 
On this occasion the EARL OF GRANARD'S regiment was 
ordered to proceed to England : it embarked from 
Dublin, landed at Park Gate, and marched to Chester. 
In a few days after its arrival in England the 
rebel army was overthrown at Sedgemoor, and the 
Duke of Monmouth was subsequently captured and 
beheaded; when the regiment returned to Ireland. 

1686 The King, being of the Roman Catholic persuasion, 
soon evinced a determination to use his utmost endea- 
vours to subvert the Protestant religion and the con- 

* This regiment has furnished several historians of its early ser- 
vices. The first is General Richard Stearne, who was nominated 
ensign of one of the independent companies in 1678, and colonel of 
the regiment in 1712 : his narrative comprises a period of forty-one 
years, viz. from 1678 to 1719, and is continued by an officer of 
the regiment to 1759: this work is in manuscript. The journal of 
Captain Parker, who entered the regiment as private in 1689, rose 
to the rank of captain, and retired in 1718, embraces the services of 
the regiment during that period, and was afterwards published by 
his son. General Richard Kane, who was many years an officer of 
the regiment, gives an account of its services, in the wars of King 
William III. and of Queen Anne, in a work on military discipline. 
Private Millner also published a journal of the campaigns from 1701 
to 1712. No other regiment has produced so many historians of 
its services. 



THE ROYAL IRISH REGIMENT OF FOOT. 

stitution of the kingdom ; commencing in Ireland, 1686 
where the Catholics were more numerous than the Pro- 
testants. The Earl of Clarendon was nominated Lord- 
Lieutenant; but "Colonel Talbot, a furious Papist, 

" was empowered to model the army, and he dismissed 
" the greater part of the Protestant officers, filling 
" their places with those of his own religion. After 
" having performed this signal service, he came over 
" to England, where he was created Earl Tyrconnel 
" and lieut. -general of the Irish army."* The Earl 
of Granard, not approving of these proceedings, re- 
signed the colonelcy of the regiment in favour of his 
son, ARTHUR LORD FORBES, whose commission as colo- 
nel was dated the 1st of March, 1686. 

In the summer of 1687, the regiment was encamped, 1687 
with the other Irish corps, on the Curragh of Kildare ; 
and the Earl Tyrconnel made a minute inspection of 
every troop and company, inquiring the name of 
every man, and discharging many because they were 
the descendants of men who had served Oliver Crom- 
well. When the regiment went into quarters, nearly 
all the Protestant officers and soldiers were dismissed 
from the service, a few only being retained to discipline 
the recruits, and the ranks were completed with men 
of the Homan Catholic religion. f 

Colonel LORD FORBES being a spirited young 
nobleman of the Protestant religion, Earl Tyrconnel 
paid some deference to his Lordship, to avoid an open 
collision with so chivalrous an officer ; and more Protes- 
tants were retained in LORD FORBES'S regiment than 
in any other Irish corps. 



Smollett. 

General Stearne, Captain Parker, Bishop Burnett, Smollett, &c. 

B 2 



HISTORICAL RECORD OF THE EIGHTEENTH, OR 

1688 I n tne summer of 1688, the regiment was again en- 
camped on the Curragh of Kildare. Meanwhile the 
proceedings of the Court in favour of Papacy and 
arbitrary government, had alarmed the kingdom, and a 
number of noblemen and gentlemen had invited the 
Prince of Orange to come to England with an army 
to support the Protestant interest. On this occasion 
LORD FOR BBS'S regiment was ordered to proceed to 
England : * it landed at Chester, marched to London, 
and was quartered in the borough of Southwark. 

The Prince of Orange having passed Dover with a 
powerful armament, the regiment was ordered to march 
to Salisbury, where it joined King James's army a few 
days after the Prince had landed at Torbay, and 
marched to Exeter. The English army, which amount- 
ed to thirty thousand men, had not been remodelled 
as the Irish forces had been, but consisted principally 
of Protestant officers and soldiers, who refused to fight 
in the cause of Papacy and arbitrary government, and 
many of them joined the Prince of Orange. Under 
these circumstances, the King ordered the army to 
withdraw towards London, and LORD FORBES'S regi- 
ment marched to Colnbrook, where it was quartered 



* List of Irish Troops which came to England at the Revolution 
in 1688. 

Number of Officers 
and Soldiers. 

Colonel Butler's dragoons, disbanded by the Prince of Orange 635 

Battalion of Foot Guards . . . ditto 641 

LOED FOEBES'S Regiment, now the EIGHTEENTH, or ROYAL 

IRISH 771 

Major-General Hamilton's regt., disbanded by the Prince of 

Orange 771 

Total .... 2818 
Official Records. 



THE KOYAL IRISH REGIMENT OF FOOT. 5 

when King James attempted to escape to France- 1688 
Lord Forbes waited on the Prince of Orange, who 
directed him to disband the Roman Catholic officers and 
soldiers, and to keep the Protestants to their colours : 
upwards of five hundred officers and soldiers were 
dismissed, and about two hundred Protestants, of all 
ranks, remained with the colours. 

In a few days after this event, a report was circulated 
that the Irish soldiers had commenced murdering the 
country people and setting fire to the villages in the 
south of England. This proved false ; but on the first 
circulation of the report, Major Sir John Edgeworth, 
who commanded the regiment in the absence of Colonel 
Lord Forbes, who was with the Prince of Orange in 
London (the Lieut.-Colonel, Lord Brittas, being a 
Papist, had left the regiment), assembled the men at 
his quarters, and formed them on parade in the court 
of Lord Oslington's house, which was walled in. " The 
" country people, hearing that an Irish regiment was 
" there, came flocking from all parts to knock us on 
" the head ; but Sir John bid them, at their peril, not 
" to approach, and told them we were not Irish Papists, 
" but true Church of England men; and seeing among 
" the crowd a gentleman, called to him, and desired he 
" would send to the minister of the parish to read 
" prayers to us, and if the minister did not convince 
" them we were all of the Church of England, we would 
" submit to their mercy. The minister was soon sent 
" for, and to prayers we went, repeating the respon- 
" ses of the Liturgy so well and so exactly, that the 
" minister declared to the mob he never before heard 
" the responses of the Church of England prayers re- 
" peated so distinctly and with so much devotion, 



6 HISTORICAL RECORD OF THE EIGHTEENTH, OR 

1688 " upon which the mob gave a huzza, and cried 'Long 
" live the Prince of Orange /' and so returned home."* 

Soon afterwards the regiment marched to Hertford- 
shire, and the Protestant officers of Hamilton's Irish 
regiment were added to its numbers. The Irish Roman 
Catholic soldiers were sent prisoners to the Isle of Wight, 
and afterwards transferred to the service of the Em- 
peror of Germany. 

Lord Forbes retiring from the service at this period, 
the Prince of Orange conferred the colonelcy of the 
regiment on Major Sir John Edgeworth, by commission 
dated the 31st of December, 1688 : at the same time 
measures were adopted to recruit its diminished 
numbers. 

1689 In the beginning of April, 1689, the regiment 
marched to Chester, where it was stationed several 
weeks. 

Colonel Sir John Edgeworth having been guilty of 
irregularity in procuring clothing, viz., purchasing the 
old clothing of disbanded Roman Catholic soldiers, 
from the Jews, to supply the recruits, instead of pro- 
viding new clothing, was deprived of his commission ; 
and on the 1 st of May, 1689, the colonelcy was conferred 
on EDWARD EARL OF MEATH : Major Newcomb was 
appointed lieut.-colonel, and Captain Frederick Hamil- 
ton major. 

Early in May the regiment marched into Wales. 

Meanwhile the Prince of Orange had been elevated 
to the throne ; but Earl Tyrconnel, who had been 
nominated lord-lieutenant of Ireland in the preceding 



* General Stearne's Journal. A similar statement is also given 
in Captain Parker's Memoirs. 



THE ROYAL IRISH REGIMENT OF FOOT. 7 

year, had retained that country in the Roman Catholic 1689 
interest ; King James had arrived there with a body 
of French troops, and the whole country was subject to 
him, excepting Enniskillen and Londonderry,, which 
were defended by Protestants. To rescue the suffering 
Protestants of Ireland from the power of their enemies, 
King William assembled an army at Chester, under 
Marshal Frederick Duke Schomberg; and the EARL 
OF MEATH'S regiment being selected for this service, 
marched to Highlake, where it embarked for Ireland, 
and landing at White-house, near Belfast, on the 22nd 
of August, joined the troops under Duke Schomberg, 
who had commenced the siege of Carrickfergus, which 
fortress surrendered a few days afterwards. 

The regiment advanced with the army to Dundalk, 
where a camp was formed on low, wet ground, which 
occasioned great loss of life among the troops from 
disease. No action of importance occurred during this 
campaign, and the regiment passed the winter in 
quarters at Lisburn, where it furnished a daily guard 
at Duke Schomberg's quarters : its ranks were com- 
pleted by zealous Protestants, who were eager to 
enrol themselves under its colours, and it was the 
strongest corps in the army. 

In the summer of 1690, King William arrived in 1690 
Ireland, and the officers and soldiers of the regiment 
had the honor of serving under the eye of their Sove- 
reign. They took part in the memorable battle of the 
Boyne, on the 1st of July, when the army of King 
William forced the passage of the river in the face of 
the French and Irish forces under King James, and 
gained a decisive victory. 

From the Boyne the regiment marched with the 
army towards Dublin, and at the general review at 



8 HISTORICAL RECORD OF THE EIGHTEENTH, OR 

1690 Finglass, on the 7th and 8th of July, it mustered six 
hundred and seventy-eight rank and file. It afterwards 
proceeded towards Limerick, where the defeated army 
of King James had rallied, and was prepared to make 
a determined stand. On arriving before the town, the 
regiment was detached, with three other corps, against 
Castle- Connell, which surrendered on being summoned. 

The British battering train was destroyed by a 
detachment of the enemy, before it arrived at the 
camp ; but the King resolved to prosecute the siege, 
and on the 20th of August the grenadiers of the 
regiment, commanded by Captain Needham, with those 
of Lord Cutts's regiment under Captain Foxon, entered 
the trenches to storm one of the outworks near the 
south-east corner of the wall. At two o'clock in the 
afternoon the signal was given, when the grenadiers 
rushed forward under a heavy fire, threw a shower of 
hand-grenades into the outwork, and scaling the wall 
with distinguished gallantry, captured the fort, killing 
about fifty men, and making a captain and twelve men 
prisoners : the remainder of the garrison escaped into 
the town. The grenadiers maintained the post they 
had captured ; a sortie of the enemy was repulsed ; 
and when the soldiers of the regiment were relieved, 
they retired : as they withdrew, Captain Needham was 
killed by a random shot from the town. * 

A breach being made in the wall, and the approaches 
carried to the foot of the glacis, the King ordered a 
general assault to be made, on the 27th of August, by 
half the grenadiers of the army, supported by seven 
battalions, to capture the covered way and two towers 
near the breach : the EARL OF MEATH'S regiment was 

* Story's History of the War in Ireland. 



THE ROYAL IRISH REGIMENT OF FOOT. 9 

one of the corps selected for this service. The assault 1690 
was made with great gallantry ; but, owing to some 
misapprehension of orders, the attack failed, and the 
several regiments engaged were forced to retire to the 
trenches, with the loss of five hundred officers and 
soldiers killed, and upwards of a thousand wounded. 

The regiment had Lieutenant Latham and Ensign 
Smith killed; Lieut.-Colonel Newcomb died of his 
wounds ; Colonel the Earl of Meath, Lieutenants Blake- 
ney and Hubblethorn, wounded ; and upwards of a 
hundred soldiers killed and wounded.* 

The failure of this attack, with the approach of 
unfavourable weather, occasioned His Majesty to raise 
the siege, when the regiment marched with several 
others, under Major-General Kirke, towards Mullin- 
gar ; but afterwards proceeded to the relief of Birr, 
which was besieged by a body of the enemy under 
Major-General Sarsfield, who retired behind the Shan- 
non on the approach of the British troops. 

The regiment was afterwards stationed at Mullingar, 
which was one of the frontier garrisons, and was 
actively employed during the winter in making 
incursions into the enemy's cantonments. 

Towards the end of April, 1691, a detachment of the 1691 
regiment, commanded by Lieut.-Colonel Hamilton, 
accompanied a party under Colonel Brewer in a 
sudden advance towards Dunore, to surprise two 
thousand armed Roman Catholic peasantry, who had 
taken post near that place. At daybreak on the follow- 
ing morning the detachment approached the post, and the 



* This list is from Story's History of the War in Ireland ; the 
Journals of General Stearne and Captain Parker say six officers 
killed and eight wounded, but do not give their names. 



10 HISTORICAL RECORD OF THE EIGHTEENTH, OR 

1691 enemy formed for battle, but soon fled, and the 
soldiers pursued and killed about fifty fugitives. 

Quitting Mullingar in the early part of June, the 
regiment was engaged in the operations of the army 
under Lieut. -General Baron De Ghinkel, afterwards 
Earl of Athlone :* it took part in the siege of Baltymore, 
which place was captured in a few days ; and after- 
wards appeared before Athlone, in the siege of which 
fortress it had several men killed and wounded. 

A strong detachment of the regiment took part 
in the capture of Athlone by storm, on which occasion 
the assailants rushed through the rapid stream of 
the Shannon, which was breast high, carried the enemy's 
works in gallant style, and in less than half an hour 
were masters of the town, to the surprise of General 
St. Ruth, who commanded King James's army, which 
was encamped near the fortress, and who was giving a 
public entertainment in his camp, when the news of 
the loss of Athlone reached him. 

After putting the captured fortress in repair, the 
army marched towards the enemy, who occupied a 
strong position near the castle of Aghrim, and on the 
12th of July a general engagement took place, in which 
the Irish forces were overpowered and driven from the 
field with severe loss, including General St. Ruth, who 
was killed by a cannon ball. On this occasion the 



* The Baron De Ghinkel was born in Guelderland : he commenced 
his military career in early life, and obtained the Order of the 
Elephant from the Prince of Orange for services in Flanders. 
He accompanied King William III to Ireland in 1690, and served 
under Marshal Duke Schomberg, and afterwards under Count Solms : 
he was appointed to succeed the latter in the chief command of the 
army in Ireland, and after the termination of the war in 1691, his 
Majesty conferred on him the honor of the Irish peerage with the title 
of Earl of Athlone and Viscount Aghrim : he died at Utrecht in 1705. 



THE ROYAL IRISH REGIMENT OF FOOT. 11 

regiment formed part of the brigade under Major- 1691 
General Talmash : it had seven rank and file killed ; 
one major, two captains, one lieutenant, one ensign, 
and eiffht rank and file wounded. 

o 

After this victory, the army marched to Galway, 
which surrendered in a few days ; and the victorious 
English troops proceeded to Limerick, where the 
remains of the defeated Irish forces had assembled, 
and appeared determined to make a resolute stand, 
in the hope of being reinforced from France. The 
regiment had the honour to take part in the siege of 
Limerick ; and, the army having crossed the river 
Shannon and completed the investment of the place, 
the Irish soon afterwards surrendered the city, and 
with it every other part of Ireland of which they 
retained possession, the Irish regiments being per- 
mitted to follow King James to France, or remain in 
their own country, as they should choose : the " Royal 
Regiment of Ireland" was one of the corps which pro- 
ceeded to France, and was taken into the service of 
Louis XIV. The EARL OF MEATH'S, now EIGHTEENTH 
regiment, was the only one of the eleven Irish corps 
embodied by King Charles II. which remained in the 
service of the English crown. 

Ireland being rescued from the domination of King 
James, the regiment went into quarters in the county 
of Wicklow, and in December it proceeded to Water- 
ford and Youghal. 

In the spring of 1692, the King of France assembled 1692 
an army near La Hogue, and prepared an immense 
fleet to convey the troops to England, to replace King 
James on the throne. When this menace of invasion 
was given, the EARL OF MEATH'S and several other 
regiments embarked at Waterford for England, 



12 HISTORICAL RECORD OF THE EIGHTEENTH, OR 

1692 and landing at Bristol, proceeded from thence to 
Portsmouth. Meanwhile the British and Dutch fleets 
had put to sea, and while the nations of Europe were 
gazing, in anxious expectation, at these preparations, 
the French navy was nearly annihilated in a decisive 
action off La Hogue, when the alarm of invasion ceased. 

Soon after this victory a powerful armament was 
placed under the orders of Lieut. -General Meinhardt 
Duke of Leinster (afterwards Duke Schomberg) for 
the purpose of making a descent on the coast of France, 
and the EARL OF HEATH'S regiment was one of the 
corps which embarked on this service. The court of 
France had, however, drawn so immense a number of 
troops to the coast, that it was not thought advisable to 
land, and the fleet sailed to the Downs, where orders 
were received for a number of regiments to proceed to 
Flanders. The transports sailed to Ostend, where the 
EARL OF MEATH'S and several other corps landed, and 
being joined by a detachment from the confederate 
army under King William, they took and fortified the 
towns of Fumes and Dixmude. This service being 
completed, the regiment embarked for England ; it 
encountered a severe storm at sea, and the transports 
were separated, but no loss was sustained ; part of the 
regiment arrived in the Thames, the remainder landed 
at Harwich, and the whole were united at Bristol. 

The Earl of Meath, being desirous of devoting his 
attention to the interests of Ireland, retired from the 
regiment, and was succeeded in the colonelcy by the 
lieut.-colonel, FREDERICK HAMILTON; Major Ormsby 
was promoted Lieut. -Colon el, and Captain Richard 
Stearne Major. 

1693 From Bristol the regiment marched in May, 1693, to 
Portsmouth, where it embarked on board the fleet to 



THE ROYAL IRISH REGIMENT OF FOOT. 13 

serve as marines, and in June sailed to Torbay, where 1693 
the Dutch squadron joined. The first service under- 
taken was the protection of about four hundred 
merchant ships belonging to England, Holland, 
Denmark, Sweden, Hamburg, and Flanders, engaged 
in the Mediterranean trade. As the fleet proceeded 
through the Channel, it presented a splendid appear- 
ance. Captain Parker states " All the sea, from the 
" line of battle to our English coast, seemed as a float- 
" ing wood covered with canvass ; and as the weather 
' c was very fair, the whole made a most glorious appear- 
" ance." After protecting the merchant- vessels through 
the Bay of Biscay, the grand fleet returned, leaving a 
squadron under Admiral Sir George Hooke, to con- 
tinue the voyage with them. The French monarch 
had made powerful efforts to send to sea a formidable 
fleet, which attempted to intercept the merchantmen 
and convoy under Sir George Rooke. The English 
admiral avoided an engagement with so superior a 
force, and brought off the greater part of his fleet ; but 
many valuable vessels were captured or destroyed 
by the enemy. On receiving news of this event, the 
combined fleets of England and Holland attempted to 
intercept the French naval force, but it got safe into 
port. 

In the autumn the regiment landed and marched to 
Norwich. 

During the campaign of this year, the confederate 
army in Flanders had sustained severe loss at the 
battle of Landen, and efforts were made to increase its 
numbers, for which purpose Colonel HAMILTON'S regi- 
ment was ordered to proceed abroad. It marched to 
London in December, was reviewed by King William 
in Hyde Park,_and embarking on the Thames, sailed to 



14 HISTORICAL RECORD OF THE EIGHTEENTH, OR 

1693 Ostend, where it landed, and was stationed several 
months. 

1694 Taking the field in the spring of 1694, the regiment 
proceeded to the vicinity of Louvain, where it was 
reviewed by the King, and afterwards took part in the 
operations of the army. At the camp near Ramilies it 
was formed in brigade under Major- General Ramsay, 
and posted between two divisions of cavalry, in the 
left wing; it afterwards shared in many toilsome 
marches, also formed part of the covering army during 
the siege of Huy, and subsequently marched into winter 
quarters at Ghent. 

During this campaign a question arose respecting 
the rank of regiments, and the King directed the 
subject to be submitted to a board of general officers.* 
Captain Parker states, " As the general officers were 
" most of them colonels of regiments raised in England 
" by King James II., they showed great partiality on 
" this occasion, for they would not allow the regiments, 

* The rank of the several regiments of the British Army was 
first regulated by a Board of General Officers assembled in the 
Netherlands, by command of King William III., on the 10th 
June, 1694. 

j Another Board of General Officers was assembled by order of 

Queen Anne in 1713, to decide on the rank and precedence of 
regiments raised subsequently to 1694. 

A third Board was assembled, by command of King George I., in 
1715, for the same purpose. 

These Boards recommended that English regiments, raised in 
England, should take rank from the dates of their formation ; and 
that English, Scots, and Irish regiments, raised for the service of a 
foreign power, should take rank from the dates of their being placed 
on the English establishment. 

The numerical titles of regiments, as fixed on the principle laid 
down in the reports of the Boards of General Officers, above alluded 
to, were confirmed by the warrant issued by authority of King 
George II., dated 1st July, 1751, and also by the warrant of King 
George III., dated 19th December, 1768. 



THE ROYAL IRISH REGIMENT OF FOOT. ] 5 

" raised in Scotland or Ireland, to have any rank in 1694 
"the army previous to the time of their coming to 
" England and entering upon English pay. By this 
" regulation, ours, that had been regimented in the time 
" of King Charles II., lost rank of eleven regiments, 
" that had been raised by King James II. The King 
" thought it very hard ; but as he had left the matter 
" to them, he confirmed their sentence." The rank of 



the regiment was thus fixed as EIGHTEENTH in the 
British line ; numerical titles were, however, not gene- 
rally used until the reign of George II.* 

Taking the field to serve the campaign of 1695, the 1695 
regiment was formed in brigade with the Fifth, Seventh, 
Twenty-third, Collingwood's (afterwards disbanded), 
and La Meloniere's regiment of French Protestants, 
in the English service, under Brigadier-General Fitz- 
patrick. 

When King William undertook the siege of the 
important fortress of Namur, the regiment formed part 
of the covering army under the Prince of Vaudemont, 
against which a French force of very superior numbers- 
advanced under the orders of Marshal Villeroy. During 
the night of the 14th of July, the hostile columns con- 
fronted each other; the French, confident of success, 
detached a body of troops to gain the rear of the allies, 
and anxiously waited for daylight to commence the 
action. The Prince of Vaudemont ordered his cavalry 
forward ; the dragoons dismounting and forming on 
foot, while the artillery, and infantry with pikes trailed, 
withdrew unobserved. The French prepared for the 
attack, when the dragoons of the confederate forces 
retired a few paces, mounted their horses, and retreated, 
presenting to the surprised French what appeared to be 

* See Note inserted at page 46. 



16 HISTORICAL RECORD OF THE EIGHTEENTH, OR 

1695 the magic spectacle of an army vanishing out of sight. 
The enemy pursued, but the allies retreated in good 
order, and took up a position in front of Ghent. This 
retreat has been celebrated by historians as a fine 
specimen of the art of war. 

The EIGHTEENTH were afterwards engaged in several 
manoeuvres for the preservation of the maritime towns 
of Flanders ; in the early part of August they were 
encamped between Genappe and Waterloo, and after- 
wards joined the forces under King William. In the 
mean time the town of Namur had surrendered ; but 
the castle, a strong fortress situate on a rock, still held 
out, and, on the llth of August, the EIGHTEENTH 
relieved one of the regiments which had suffered se- 
verely in the siege, and took its turn of duty in the 
trenches. A breach having been effected, arrangements 
were made for a general assault. Three thousand 
British, under Lord Cutts, were to attack the counter- 
scarp and the breach of the Terra Nova ; three thousand 
Bavarians the breach of the Cohorn; two thousand 
Brandenburgers (Prussians) the upper point of the 
Cohorn; two thousand Dutch the Casotte ; and six 
hundred men were to storm the lower town : the EIGH- 
TEENTH formed part of the British storming party. 

The regiment marched into the trenches on the 20th 
of August, to take part in storming the Castle of 
Namur, and the soldiers were elated with the expecta- 
tion of distinguishing themselves under the eye of their 
Sovereign. The trenches being crowded with troops, 
the EIGHTEENTH and two other regiments were ordered 
to Salsine Abbey, half a mile from the breach to be 
attacked. A little before mid-day the assault was 
made with heroic ardour, but, owing to some mistake 
in the signal, all the corps did not advance simul- 
taneously, and the British grenadiers, who headed the 



THE ROYAL IRISH REGIMENT OF FOOT. 17 

storming party, were opposed by very superior numbers, 1695 
and sustained severe loss; Lord Cutts being among 
the wounded. Hurrying from Salsine Abbey to share 
in the assault, the EIGHTEENTH approached the scene 
of conflict a few moments after the grenadiers had 
been repulsed and forced to retire ; the regiment, 
however, rushed forward, stormed the breach with 
signal gallantry, and planted the regimental colours 
on the summit ; but the enemy had constructed 
a strong work within the breach, which the utmost 
efforts of the officers and soldiers could not force, and 
after performing " prodigies of valour" they were . 
obliged to retreat with severe loss. The other attacks 
were more successful ; and lodgments were effected in 
the works. Captain Parker states " The King saw 
" this action from a rising ground at the back of 
" Salsine Abbey, and took particular notice of the be- 
" haviour of our regiment ; for ours, only, mounted the top 
" of the breach, and we planted our colours thereon, but 
" could not proceed farther, because a strong retrench- 
" ment had been thrown up on the inside, which we 
" could not see till we had mounted the very top of the 
" breach, so we were obliged to follow the crowd. His 
" Majesty, on this occasion, was pleased to honour us 
' with the title of " THE ROYAL REGIMENT OF FOOT OF 
" IRELAND."* The King also conferred on the regi- 
ment the privilege of bearing his own arms, " THE 
LION OF NASSAU," on its colours (on which the cross 
of St. Patrick had previously been displayed) ; also the 

" HARP IN A BLUE FIELD AND A CROWN OVER IT," and 

the motto, " Virtutis Namurcensis Prcemium" 

* A similar statement is made in General Stearne's Journal, and is 
corroborated by other evidence. 

c 



18 HISTORICAL RECORD OF THE EIGHTEENTH, OR 

1695 The title was afterwards changed to tl ROYAL IRISH 

REGIMENT.'' 

The regiment sustained severe loss on this occasion ; 
Lieut. -Colonel Ormsby, Captains Purefoy, Pinsent, 
and Cateret, Lieutenants Fitzmorris and Ramme, 
Ensigns Fettyplace, Blunt, Baker, and Hayter, with 
eighty-six non-commissioned officers and soldiers, were 
killed : Captain John Southwell and Ensign Lister 
died of their wounds ; Colonel Frederick Hamilton, 
Captains Kane, Duroure, Seymour, and William South- 
well, Lieutenants La Planche, Brereton, Hybert, 
Arphaxad, and Rolleston, Ensigns John Gifford, Orms- 
by, and Blakeney, with one hundred and eighty-five 
non-commissioned officers and soldiers, were wounded.* 

The fire against the castle was continued, and pre- 
parations were made for another assault, which was 
prevented by the surrender of the garrison. Thus was 
captured the celebrated fortress of Namur, which re- 
flected great credit on the confederate armies. 

This conquest terminated the campaign, and the 
regiment passed the winter in garrison at Ghent. 

1696 During the campaign of 1696, the regiment served 
with the army of Flanders under the Prince of Vaude- 
mont ; and was formed in brigade with a battalion of the 
Royals, the third, fifth, and seventeenth regiments under 
Brigadier- General Selwyn ; and its services were limited 
to the protection of Ghent, Bruges, and the maritime 
towns of Flanders. In the autumn it returned to Ghent. 

1697 Leaving Ghent in the spring of 1697, the regiment 
joined the army of Brabant under King William, and 

* This list is from D'Auvergne's History of the Campaigns in 
Flanders. General Stearne gives a greater number ; as he appears 
to include slight wounds not noticed in the official returns. Captain 
Parker's statement agrees with the above. 



THE ROYAL IRISH REGIMENT OF FOOT. 19 

took part in the movements of this campaign ; which 1697 
were terminated by the treaty of Kyswick, when the 
British monarch saw his efforts for the liberty of 
Europe, and the preservation of the Protestant religion, 
attended with success. 

On the termination of hostilities., the regiment 
marched to Ghent, where it was quartered several 
weeks, and on the 10th of December embarked at 
Ostend for -Ireland. As two of the transports ap- 
proached the Irish coast, they were chased by a Sallee 
man-of-war of eighteen guns, carrying Zealand colours. 
Seeing his brave soldiers in danger of being made 
slaves, Lieut. -Colonel Stearne called them on deck ; 
the whole resolved on a desperate defence ; and it was 
arranged that when the Sallee man-of-war attacked 
one transport, the other should come to its assistance, 
and the enemy should be boarded by the soldiers 
sword in hand, not doubting but that they would over- 
power the Turks and Moors, and capture the ship. 
With this view the soldiers were kept out of sight to 
induce the enemy to make an attack, and every man 
was ready for action. " The Sallee man-of-war kept 
if us company about an hour, and was once, as we 
" thought, coming up to board us ; however, she 
" thought better of it, fell astern, and stood off without 
" firing a shot."* During the following night the two 
transports narrowly escaped destruction from a storm ; 
they afterwards arrived safe in Bantry Bay ; the soldiers 
landed on the 24th of December, and marched to Cork, 
where the regiment was assembled. 

From Cork the regiment marched, in July, 1698, to 1699 
Waterford ; in the spring of 1699 it proceeded to Dublin, 
and in 1700 it was removed to Kinsale. 

* General Stearne's Journal. 

c2 



20 HISTORICAL RECORD OF THE EIGHTEENTH, OR 

1700 Pursuing those schemes of aggrandizement which 
had repeatedly involved Europe in war, Louis XIV. 
procured the accession of his grandson, Philip Duke 
of Anjou, to the throne of Spain, in violation of exist- 
ing treaties ; seized on the Spanish Netherlands ; and 
made prisoners the Dutch troops in garrison in the 
barrier towns. The sudden acquisition of the Spanish 
monarchy by a grandson of the most ambitious and 
potent monarch of Europe, with the prospect ofFrance 
and Spain being eventually united under one sovereign, 
affected the interests and agitated the public mind of 
all countries. 

1701 War was resolved upon : the standing armies were 
augmented ; and while the din of hostile preparation 
was heard on every side, the ROYAL IRISH regiment 
was placed upon a war establishment, and embarked 
for Holland, where it arrived, with several other corps, 
in July, 1701, and was placed in garrison at Huesden. 
On the 21st of September it was reviewed on Breda- 
heath by King William III. 

1702 Quitting Huesden in March, 1702, the regiment 
proceeded to Rosendael, where the British infantry 
was assembled under Brigadier-General Ingoldsby ; 
and at this place the troops received information of 
the death of King William III., on the 8th of March, 
and of the accession of Queen Anne. 

From Rosendael the regiment marched to the duchy 
of Cleves, and formed part of the army encamped at 
Cranenburg during the siege of Kayserswerth, on the 
Lower Rhine, by the Germans. A French force of 
very superior numbers attempting to cut off the com- 
munication of the army at Cranenburg with Nimeguen, 
the troops struck their tents on the 10th of June, and 
by a forced march during the night arrived within a few 



THE ROYAL IRISH REGIMENT OF FOOT. 21 

miles of Nimeguen as the French legions approached. 1702 
Some sharp fighting occurred, in which the British 
corps in the rear-guard evinced great gallantry, and the 
army effected its retreat under the works of the fortress. 
Additional forces having arrived from England, the 
EARL OF MARLBOROUGH* assumed the command of the 
allied army, and by a series of skilful movements he 
forced the French army to make a precipitate retreat 
from the frontiers of Holland to their own lines, and 
he twice attempted to bring on a general engagement 
under advantageous circumstances, but was restrained 
by the Dutch field deputies. The French forces having 
fled to their lines, the English General resolved to 
attack their fortified towns, and the ROYAL IRISH regi- 
ment was one of the corps detached from the main 
army to undertake the siege of the fortress of Venloo, 
situate on the east side of the river Maese, in the 
province of Limburg.t On the west side of the river 
was a detached fortification of five bastions, called Fort 
St. Michael, against which the British troops carried 
on their approaches ; the Dutch and Germans attack- 
ing other parts of the town : the whole were under 
Veldt- Marshal Prince Nassau-Saarbruck. The ap- 
proaches being carried to the foot of the glacis, orders 
were given to storm the covered-way, and make a 
lodgment on the top of the glacis; and the ROYAL IRISH 
regiment, being on duty in the trenches at the time, 
was appointed to make the attack, together with the 

* Colonel John Churchill was created Baron Churchill on the 
14th May, 1685 ; Earl of Marlborough on the 9th April, 1689 ; 
and Duke of Marlborough on the 14th December, 1702. 

t The British regiments at the siege of Venloo were the eighth, 
thirteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth, under Brigadier-General 
F, Hamilton and Lieut. -General Lord Cutts, 



22 HISTORICAL RECORD OF THE EIGHTEENTH, OR 

1702 grenadiers of the brigade, and a party of chosen fusi- 
liers. Captain Parker has given the following account 
of this attack : 

"The Lord Cutts sent for all the officers, and told 
" them, the design was to drive the enemy from the 
" covered-way, that they might not disturb the work- 
" men in making a lodgment; however, if the enemy 
" gave way with precipitation, we were to jump into 
" the covered-way, and pursue them, let the conse- 
" quence be what it would. We all thought these 
" were very rash orders, contrary both to the rules of 
" war, and the design of the attack. 

"About four in the afternoon (18th September), the 
" signal was given, and, according to our orders, we 
" rushed up the covered- way ; the enemy gave us one 
" scattering fire, and away they ran : we jumped into 
" the covered- way, and ran after them. They made 
" to a ravelin, which covered the curtain of the fort^ 
" in which were a captain and sixty men. We, seeing 
" them get into the ravelin, pursued them, got in with 
" them, and soon put most of them to the sword. They 
" that escaped us fled over a small wooden bridge, 
" that led over the moat to the fort ; and here, like 
" madmen, without fear or wit, we pursued them over 
" that tottering bridge, exposed to the fire of the great 
" and small shot of the fort. However, we got over 
" the fausse-braye, where we had nothing for it but to 
" take the fort or die. They that fled before us 
" climbed up by the long grass that grew out of the 
" fort; so we climbed after them. Here we were hard 
" put to it to pull out the palisades, which pointed 
" down upon us from the parapet, and, was it not for 
" the great surprise and consternation of those within, 
" we could never have surmounted this very point : 



THE ROYAL IRISH REGIMENT OF FOOT. 23 

Cf but, as soon as they saw us at this work, they quitted 1702 
" the rampart, and retired down to the parade in the 
" body of the fort, where they laid down their arms 
" and cried for quarter, which was readily granted 
" them. Thus were the unaccountable orders of Lord 
" Cutts as unaccountably executed, to the great sur- 
" prise of the whole army, and even of ourselves, when 
" we came to reflect on what we had done." 

The enemy had about four hundred killed, and two 
hundred made prisoners. The British loss, in killed 
and wounded, did not exceed forty men. 

Captain Parker, of the ROYAL IRISH regiment, adds, 
" This affair was the occasion of another almost as 
" surprising. An express came to Prince Nassau which 
" gave an account that Landau was taken ; whereupon 
" he ordered the army to draw down near the town, to 
" fire three rounds (as a feu de-joie) ; the cannon also 
" of all the batteries, the mortars, and cohorns, were 
te ordered to fire, with the troops, into the town. 
" When the garrison and inhabitants saw us drawing 
" down on all sides, they judged it was with a design 
" of making such an attack on the town as we had 
" made on the fort, which struck such a terror into 
" them, that the magistrates begged the Governor to 
" capitulate, and not suffer them all to be put to the 
" sword. The first round of all our batteries, and-the 
" small shot of the army, so affrighted them, that men, 
" women, and children, came flocking to the ramparts 
" with white cloths in their hands, crying, ' Mercy ! 
" mercy !' and the Governor, in as great a consterna- 
" tion as the rest, sent out an officer to the Prince to 
" desire a capitulation, which was immediately granted ; 
" as we had other sieges to carry on this season, the 
" Prince allowed them honourable terms." 



24 HISTORICAL RECORD OF THE EIGHTEENTH, OK 

1702 After the capture of Venloo, the regiment was 
employed in the siege of the fortress of fiuremopde, 
which was captured in a short time ; and Stevenswart 
having also been reduced by a detachment from the 
covering army, the navigation of the Maese was thus 
cleared of the enemy up to Maastricht. 

Rejoining the main army after this achievement, the 
regiment advanced towards the city of Liege, the 
French forces retiring as the British approached, but 
leaving a strong garrison in the citadel and Chartreuse. 
The ROYAL IRISH regiment was employed in the siege 
of the citadel of Liege, and its grenadier company had 
the honour to take part in the capture of that fortress 
by storm, on the 23rd of October, when the British 
soldiers highly distinguished themselves. They were 
permitted to appropriate a large quantity of dollars 
and silver plate, captured on this occasion, to their 
own use. 

From the pleasant valley of Liege, the regiment 
commenced its march, on the 3rd of November, back 
to Holland, and passed the winter in garrison at 
Huesden. 

1703 Quitting its winter quarters in April, 1703, the 
regiment traversed the country to Maestricht, and 
was in position near that city when the French forces, 
under Marshals Villeroy and Boufflers, made a sudden 
advance to surprise the British troops in their quarters, 
but were defeated in their design. 

The DUKE OF MARLBOROUGH assembled the army 
near Maestricht, and the ROYAL IRISH regiment was 
formed in brigade with the eighth, thirteenth, seven- 
teenth, and thirty-third, under its colonel, Brigadier- 
General F. Hamilton; and it advanced with the 
army towards Tongres, when the French quitted their 



THE ROYAL IRISH REGIMENT OF FOOT. 25 

post and eventually retired within their fortified lines, 1708 
where the English General was desirous of attacking 
them, but was prevented by the Dutch commanders 
and field deputies. The services of the regiment 
were afterwards connected with the siege of Huy, 
which fortress was captured in ten days. 

The ROYAL IRISH regiment formed part of the 
covering army during the siege of Limburg, which was 
commenced on the 10th of September, and on the 27th 
of that month the Governor surrendered. Spanish 
Guelderland being thus delivered from the power of 
France, the Dutch were freed from the danger of an 
invasion. 

After taking part in these services the regiment 
marched to Breda : during the severe frosts of winter 
it proceeded to Bergen-op-Zoom, to reinforce the 
garrison of that fortress, and afterwards returned to 
Breda, from whence it detached three hundred men 
to Maestricht, to join the garrison of that city, while 
the Dutch soldiers were working at the entrench- 
ments on the heights of Petersberg. 

Meanwhile the united French and Bavarian armies 1704 
had gained considerable advantage in Germany, and 
the Duke of Marlborough resolved to lead his British 
brigades from the ocean to the Danube, to rescue the 
Emperor of Germany from the menaced danger. To 
engage in this splendid undertaking, the ROYAL IRISH 
regiment marched from Breda on the 5th of May, 
N.S., and proceeded towards the Rhine; being joined 
at Bedburg by the detachment from Maestricht. 
Continuing its route, the regiment proceeded to 
Coblentz, where it passed the Moselle and the 
Rhine, and afterwards traversed the minor states of 
Germany towards the seat of war on the Danube; 



26 HISTORICAL RECORD OF THE EIGHTEENTH, OR 

1704 all Europe being surprised at the ability evinced by 
the British commander in conducting this daring 
enterprise. 

Having united with the forces of the Empire, the 
British advanced on the 2nd of July to attack a body 
of French and Bavarians under Count d'Arco, in an 
entrenched camp on the heights of Schellenberg, on the 
left bank of the Danube. About six in the evening 
the leading division, of which a detachment of the 
ROYAL IRISH regiment formed part, moved forward 
under a heavy fire, and attacked the enemy's entrench- 
ments with distinguished gallantry. The enemy made 
a determined resistance, and the assailants, were re- 
pulsed ; but the attack was renewed with heroic courage, 
and, after a protracted contest, the Germans co-operated 
in the attack, when the entrenchments were forced, 
and the French and Bavarians driven from the heights 
with great slaughter. The British cavalry, charging, 
completed the discomfiture of the enemy, and sixteen 
pieces of ordnance, a number of standards and colours, 
with the enemy's tents, and the equipage and plate of 
the Count d'Arco, were captured. 

The regiment had one serjeant and eleven rank and 
file killed ; Captain Lea, Ensigns Oilman, Walsh, and 
Pensant, three Serjeants, and thirty-two rank and file 
wounded.* 

The victory at Schellenberg was followed by the 
flight of the enemy from Donawerth ; and the regiment 
was engaged in the operations of the army which 
penetrated Bavaria, and captured Rayn after a short 



* Boyer's Annals of Queen Anne. The regimental historians do 
not give the names of the officers in their lists of killed and wounded 
on this occasion. 



THE ROYAL IRISH REGIMENT OF FOOT. 27 

siege. The Elector of Bavaria formed an entrenched 1704 
camp at Augsburg, to which city the allied army ad- 
vanced ; but found the enemy's camp too strong to be 
attacked with any prospect of success, and the troops 
retired a short distance. The siege of Ingoldstadt was 
commenced by the Germans, and the ROYAL IRISH 
regiment formed part of the covering army. 

Quitting his camp at Augsburg, the Elector of 
Bavaria joined a strong body of French troops sent to 
reinforce his army, and the united divisions encamped 
in the valley of the Danube, near the village of 
Blenheim. 

At three o'clock on the morning of the memorable 
13th of August, 1704, the allied army advanced towards 
the enemy, and about three o'clock in the afternoon the 
British developed their attack against the French 
brigades posted in the village of Blenheim ; thus 
commencing an engagement in which the English 
troops acquired great distinction. The village being 
found strongly fortified, it was environed by a few corps, 
and the army passed the little river Nebel to attack 
the enemy's lines. The ROYAL IRISH regiment directed 
its attacks against the right wing of the Gallo- Bava- 
rian army, and was engaged with the chosen troops 
of France, under Marshal Tallard ; its heroic conduct 
reflected the highest lustre on the British arms, and it 
contributed materially to the complete overthrow and 
discomfiture of the opposing host. The French were 
chased from the field with great slaughter, and the 
loss of their cannon, baggage, and many troops captured, 
including the brigades posted in the village of Blen- 
heim : Marshal Tallard, and several officers of distinc- 
tion, were among the prisoners. The left wing of the 
enemy was also overpowered by the Germans, and the 



28 HISTORICAL RECORD OF THE EIGHTEENTH, OR 

1704 victory was complete and decisive : the powerful armies' 
of France and Bavaria being literally destroyed. 
Thus, on the banks of the Danube, was achieved by 
British valour a trophy which will serve as a monu- 
ment to commemorate the national glory to the end 
of time. The conduct of the brave soldiers who 
conquered in the interior of Germany was the admira- 
tion of surrounding states, and has been lauded by 
numerous historians : the DUKE OF MARLBOROUGH 
was elevated to the dignity of a PRINCE of the ROMAN 
EMPIRE. 

The loss of the ROYAL IRISH regiment was Captains 
Brown, Rolleston, and Vaughan, Ensign Moyle, five 
Serjeants, and fifty-two rank and file killed ; Major 
Kane, Captains Lepenitor and Hussey, Lieutenants 
Smith, Roberts, Blakeney, and Harvey, Ensign Trips, 
nine Serjeants, and eighty-seven rank and file 
wounded.* 

From the Danube, the regiment traversed the 
country to the banks of the Rhine, crossed that river 
at Philipsburg on the 7th of September, and formed 
part of the covering army encamped at Croon- Weissem- 
berg during the siege of Landau, which was under- 
taken by the Germans. When the siege drew towards 
a close, the regiment marched to Germersheim, where 
it embarked in boats on the Rhine, and in twelve days 
arrived at Nimeguen, where it landed, and, marching 
to Ruremonde, passed the winter at that place. 



* This list is taken from General Stearne's Journal ; he, being 
lieut.-colonel commanding the regiment at the time, had every 
opportunity of being well acquainted with its losp. His list does not 
correspond exactly with that given by Captain Parker. In the list in 
Boyer's ' Annals of Queen Anne,' there is another wounded officer 
included, viz. Lieutenant Weddle. 



THE ROYAL IRISH REGIMENT OF FOOT. 29 

Brigadier-General Hamilton, having become ad- 1705 
vanced in years, retired from active service, and was 
permitted to dispose of the colonelcy of the regiment to 
Lieut. -General Ingoldsby, from the twenty-third foot, 
who was appointed colonel of the ROYAL IRISH regi- 
ment by commission dated the 1st of April, 1705. 

From Ruremonde the regiment marched to the 
vicinity of Maestricht, where it joined the army ; and 
afterwards proceeded by Juliers, through a mountainous 
country, to the valley of the Moselle, where it encamped 
near the city of Treves. The army passed the 
Moselle and the Saar in the early part of June, with 
the view of carrying on the war in that direction ; but 
the Duke of Marlborough, being disappointed of the 
co-operation of the Germans, marched his army back 
to the Netherlands, which occasioned the soldiers much 
fatigue. On arriving at the Maese, a detachment was 
employed in recapturing Huy, which the enemy had 
taken during the absence of the army up the Moselle. 

A formidable barrier of forts and entrenchments had 
been constructed with great labour and expense to arrest 
the progress of the British General ; but by menacing 
the lines to the south of the Mehaine, to draw the 
French army to that quarter, and afterwards making a 
forced march to the right during the night of the 17th 
of July, these stupendous works were passed at Helixem 
and Neer-Hespen, with little opposition ; and the French 
and Bavarian troops, which hurried to the spot to drive 
back the leading corps of the allied army, were re- 
pulsed with severe loss. The ROYAL IRISH regiment 
was formed in brigade on this occasion with the 
twenty-fourth, twenty -ninth, and Temple's (afterwards 
disbanded), under Brigadier-General Webb, and, 
being in the main body of the army, did not sustain 



30 HISTORICAL RECORD OF THE EIGHTEENTH, OR 

1705 any loss. After this brilliant success, the designs of 
the British commander were frustrated by the oppo- 
sition of the Dutch Generals, and little further advan- 
tage was gained. 

The regiment returned to Holland for winter quar- 
ters, and was stationed at Worcum. 

1706 Taking the field in May, 1706, the regiment pro- 
ceeded to the general rendezvous of the army near 
Tongres, and, advancing from thence in the direction 
of Mont St. Andre, on Whit Sunday the 23rd of May, 
the British commander discovered a powerful French 
army, under Marshal Villeroy and the Elector of 
Bavaria, in position at that place, with their centre at 
the village of Ramilies, which was occupied by a con- 
siderable body of troops. 

Diverging into the plain, the allied army formed 
line and advanced towards the enemy; the ROYAL 
IRISH regiment, being in the right wing, formed on the 
heights of Foulz, and, descending into the low grounds 
near the Little Gheet river, menaced the enemy's left, 
at Autreglise and Offuz, with an attack. This move- 
ment occasioned the enemy to weaken his centre to 
support his left flank, when the Duke of Marlborough 
instantly reinforced his centre, and made a determined 
attack upon the enemy's position at the weakened 
point. For some time the officers and soldiers of the 
ROYAL IRISH regiment were spectators of the fight; 
but at a critical moment they were brought forward, 
and they contributed to the complete overthrow of the 
forces of France, Spain, and Bavaria. The warlike 
brigades of the enemy, a few hours before so formidable 
and menacing, were driven from the field with great 
slaughter, and the loss of many officers and soldiers 
taken prisoners, also of their cannon and many stand- 



THE ROYAL IRISH REGIMENT OF FOOT. 31 

ards and colours. After pursuing the fugitives a 1706 
considerable distance, the regiment halted for the night, 
surrounded by the ensanguined trophies of this day of 
glorious triumph to the British arms. 

Retreating to Louvain, the broken remains of the 
enemy's splendid army halted a short time, and 
soon afterwards abandoned that city, and also Lierre, 
Ghent, Damme, and Bruges. The magistrates of 
these towns, together with those of Brussels, Malines, 
and Alost, renounced their allegiance to the Duke of 
Anjou, and declared in favour of the House of Austria. 
The garrisons of Oudenarde and Antwerp surrendered ; 
Ostend withstood a short siege and then capitulated. 
Thus the successes of the allied arms were splendid 
beyond all precedent. 

Towards the end of July, the ROYAL IRISH regiment 
was detached from the main army to take part in the 
siege of the fortress of Menin, which was considered one 
of the masterpieces of VAUBAN, the celebrated French 
engineer, and was provided with a numerous garrison 
well supplied with everything necessary for a protracted 
defence. The garrison disputed every yard of ground 
with sanguinary tenacity ; but the allies carried on the 
siege with vigour, and brought their approaches to the 
foot of the glacis, where a storming party was assembled 
to attack the covered-way. The ROYAL IRISH regi- 
ment was appointed to take part in this service. The 
signal being given, the assailants rushed forward to the 
palisades, and threw a shower of hand-grenades into 
the covered-way ; then, entering amidst the confusion, 
overthrew all opposition. General Stearne states, 
" This proved warm service ; for though we drove the 
" enemy at once out of the counterscarp, they sprung 



32 HISTORICAL RECORD OF THE EIGHTEENTH, OR 

1706 " two mines upon us, and from their works plied us 
" with a most violent fire, which we lay exposed to 
" until our workmen had thrown up an entrenchment 
" sufficient to cover us. In this action our regiment 
" had six officers and upwards of eighty soldiers killed 
" and wounded."* 

The Governor, finding himself unable to arrest the 
progress of the besieging force, surrendered. 

The fortress of Aeth was afterwards captured, and 
this event terminated the campaign. Thus fortresses 
which had resisted powerful armies for months and 
years, and provinces disputed for ages, were the con- 
quests of a summer : the nations of Europe witnessing 
with astonishment the splendid achievements of the 
forces under the Duke of Marlborough. After sharing 
in the brilliant successes of this campaign, the ROYAL 
IRISH regiment passed the winter at Ghent. 

1707 In May, 1707, the regiment again took the field, and 
was formed in brigade with the second battalion of the 
Royals, the eighth, twenty-fourth, and Temple's regi- 
ments, under Brigadier- General Sir Richard Temple 
(afterwards Viscount Cobham). During this campaign^ 
the French army avoided a general engagement, and 
the summer was passed by the opposing armies in 
manoeuvring and watching each other's movements. 
In the autumn, the regiment marched to the castle of 
Ghent, of which its commanding officer, Colonel Stearne, 
was appointed governor. 

1708 Finding his armies beaten on the continent, the 
French monarch fitted out an expedition for the pur- 

* The names of the officers killed and wounded are not given. 
Captain Parker states that he was wounded ; his list says seven offi- 
cers killed and eight wounded. 



THE ROYAL IRISH REGIMENT OF FOOT. 33 

pose of landing the Pretender in Scotland, to embroil 1708 
Great Britain in civil war ; and the EIGHTEENTH regiment 
was one of the corps ordered home to repel the invad- 
ers : it embarked from Ostend in the middle of March, 
1708, and sailed to the river Tyne ; but the English 
fleet chased the French squadron from the British 
coast, and the regiment returned to Flanders. 

When the opposing armies took the field, the French 
had obtained possession of Ghent and Bruges by trea- 
chery ; but the English General surprised the French on 
the march near Oudenarde on the llth of June, and 
gained a decisive victory. The EIGHTEENTH regiment 
formed part of the leading brigade of the van of the 
army, under Major-General Cadogan, and with the 
eighth, twenty-third, and thirty-seventh regiments, de. 
scended from the high grounds between Eyne and 
Bevere, forded a rivulet, and attacked seven batta- 
lions of the Swiss regiments of Pfeffer, Villars, and 
Gueder, which had taken post at Eyne : after a sharp 
contest British valour prevailed, and Brigadier-General 
Pfeffer, with three entire battalions, were made prison- 
ers of war : the remainder were either killed, or inter- 
cepted in their attempt to escape, and made prisoners. 
The EIGHTEENTH afterwards attacked a body of troops 
posted in the enclosures, and soon drove the French 
from their ground. As the regiment was advancing in 
pursuit, a numerous body of French cavalry menaced 
it in front and flank, and it fell back to the hedges, 
where it repulsed the French horsemen. Other 
British brigades arriving, the whole advanced ; a fierce 
conflict of musketry ensued, and charge succeeded 
charge until darkness put an end to the conflict, and 
thus saved the French army from complete annihilation. 

D 



34 HISTORICAL RECORD OF THE EIGHTEENTH, OK 

1108 The enemy made a precipitate retreat during the 
night. 

Lieut. -Colon el Stearne commanded the regiment on 
this occasion, and he states in his journal, ' Our regi- 
" ment, though the first that engaged, had only one 
" lieutenant and eight men killed, and twelve men 
" wounded." 

The ROYAL IRISH regiment formed part of the force 
employed in the siege of the important fortress of 
Lisle, the capital of French Flanders, and the regiment 
had numerous opportunities of distinguishing itself 
during the long and determined defence made by a 
numerous garrison under Marshal Boufflers. The 
citadel did not surrender until the 9th of December. 
The EIGHTEENTH had two captains and three subalterns 
killed, the major and several other officers wounded, 
and two hundred non-commissioned officers and soldiers 
killed and wounded. 

1709 A strong detachment of recruits replaced the losses 
of the regiment, and it was in a highly efficient state 
when it took the field to serve the campaign of 1709. 
The Duke of Marlborough menaced the French army 
with an attack, which occasioned Marshal Villars to 
weaken the garrisons of the fortified towns to strengthen 
the army in the field, when the allies besieged Tournay. 
The EIGHTEENTH were detached, under the Prince of 
Orange, to drive the French detachment from Mortagne 
and St. Amand, and, having accomplished this service, 
joined the besieging army, and carried on its ap- 
proaches at the seven fountains. The regiment was 
engaged in storming the breaches in the Ravelin and 
Half-Moon ; and on the 29th of July it was in readiness 
to take part in storming the town, which was prevented 



t 
THE ROYAL IRISH REGIMENT OF FOOT. 35 

by the surrender of the place, the garrison retiring into 1709 
the citadel. 

The EIGHTEENTH took part in the siege of the citadel 
of Tournay, which was celebrated for the extent of its 
underground works. Captain Parker, of the regiment, 
states in his journal, " Our approaches against this 
" citadel were carried on mostly underground, by sink- 
" ing pits several fathom deep, and working from 
" thence until we came to their casemates and mines. 
" These extended a great way from the body of the 
" citadel, and in them our men and the enemy fre- 
" quently met, and fought with sword and pistol. We 
" could not prevent them springing several mines 
" which blew up some of our batteries, guns and all, 
" and a great many men, in particular a captain, 
" lieutenant, and forty (the London Gazette says 
" thirty) men of our regiment." The EIGHTEENTH 
lost a lieutenant and several men in the combats 
underground ; and ten grenadiers were suffocated in 
one of the galleries. In the early part of September 
the governor surrendered. 

From Tournay the army marched in the direction 
of Mons, and, the French taking up a position near 
Malplaquet, a general engagement took place on the 
llth of September, when the enemy was forced from 
his entrenchments with loss. Captain Parker states, 
' ' The part which our regiment acted in this battle was 
" something remarkable. We happened to be the last 
" of the regiments which had been left at Tournay to 
" level the approaches, and did not come up till the 
" lines were formed. We were ordered to draw up 
" on the right of the army, opposite a skirt of the wood 
" of Sart, and, when the army advanced to attack the 
" enemy, we entered the wood in our front. We con- 

D'2 



36 HISTORICAL RECORD OF THE EIGHTEENTH, OR 

1709 " tinued marching till we came to a small plain, on the 
" opposite side of which we perceived a battalion of 
" the enemy drawn up, a skirt of the wood being in 
" its rear. Colonel Kane, who was then at the head 
" of the regiment, having drawn us up, and formed 
" our platoons, advanced towards the enemy, with the 
" six platoons of our first fire made ready. When we 
" arrived within a hundred paces of them, they gave 
" us a fire of one of their ranks ; whereupon we halted, 
" and returned them the fire of our six platoons at 
" once, and immediately made ready the six platoons 
" of our second fire, and advanced upon them again. 
" They then gave us the fire of another rank ; and we 
" returned them a second fire, which made them 
" shrink ; however they gave us the fire of a third rank, 
" after a scattering manner, and then retired into the 
" wood in great disorder ; on which we sent our third 
" fire after them and saw them no more. We advanced 
" up to the ground which they had quitted, and found 
" several of them killed and wounded ; and among the 
" latter was one Lieutenant O'Sulivan, who told us 
" the battalion we had engaged was the ' ROYAL RE- 
'" GIMENT OF IRELAND.'* Here, therefore, was a 
** fair trial between the TWO ROYAL REGIMENTS OF 
" IRELAND, one in the BRITISH and the other in the 
" FRENCH service ; for we met each other upon equal 
*' terms, and there was none else to interpose. We had 
" but four men killed and six wounded ; and found 
" near forty of them on the spot killed and wounded. 



* This corps was styled foot-guards in the reigns of King Charles 
II. and King James II.; the second battalion came to England at the 
Revolution, and was disbanded by the Prince of Orange. The first 
battalion adhered to King James, and at the treaty of Limerick, in 
1691, transferred its services to the crown of France. 



THE ROYAL IRISH REGIMENT OF FOOT. 37 

" The advantage on our side will be easily accounted 1109 
" for, first from the weight of our ball ; for the French 
" arms carry bullets of 24 to the pound, whereas our 
" British firelocks carry ball of 16 only to the pound, 
" which will make a considerable difference in the exe- 
" cution : again, the manner of our firing was differ- 
" ent from theirs; the French, at that time, fired all 
" by ranks, which can never do equal execution with 
" our platoon firing." 

Lieut.-Colonel Stearne gives nearly the same par- 
ticulars, and adds " We marched into the wood after 
" them (the Royal Irish in the French service) ; and 
" when we had got through, we found our army 
<( mounting the enemy's last entrenchments, and our 
" brother harpers* scoured off as fast as their heels 
" could carry them. Thus ended this great and 
" terrible battle, which was the most obstinate engage- 
" ment on both sides that has been known in the 
" memory of man : the killed and wounded on both 
" sides was very great." 

The EIGHTEENTH were afterwards employed in 
covering the siege of Mons, and passed the winter in 
quarters at Ghent. 

From Ghent the regiment advanced on the 14th of 1710 
April, 1710, and took part in the operations by which 
the French lines were passed at Pont-a- Vendin ; and 
also formed part of the covering army during the siege 
of Douay, and also during the siege of Bethune ; and 
was afterwards detached, under the Prince of Anhalt, 
to attack the town of Aire, situate on the banks of the 
river Lys. In the siege of this place many difficulties 
had to be overcome, from the nature of the ground, 
and from the determined defence of a numerous 

* Alluding to both regiments bearing the Irish Harp on their 
Colours. 



38 HISTORICAL RECORD OF THE EIGHTEENTH, OR 

1710 garrison : the EIGHTEENTH regiment had three officers 
killed, and five wounded ; also about eighty soldiers 
killed and wounded. The garrison surrendered on the 
9th of November; and the regiment afterwards re- 
turned to Ghent.* 

1711 The ROYAL IRISH again took the field in April, 1711, 
and were employed in the operations by which the 
boasted impregnable French lines were passed at 
Arleux, and the opportunity of attacking the fortified 
town of Bouchain, situated on both sides of the river 
Scheldt, was ensured. The regiment formed part of 
a detachment of twenty battalions, commanded by 
Lieut.- General the Earl of Orkney, which took post 
on the north and north-west side of the town and river, 
and advanced to drive the French from the heights of 
Wavrechin. Captain Parker states, " Our British 
" grenadiers marched to the top of the hill on the left 
" of their works, in order to begin the attack on that 
" side : here we were posted in a field of wheat, about 
" seventy or eighty paces from their works, expecting 
" every moment the signal to fall on. I must confess 
" I did not like the aspect of the thing : we plainly saw 
" their entrenchment was a perfect bulwark, strong and 
" lofty, and crowded with men, and cannon pointed 
" directly at us : we wished much that the Duke might 
" take a nearer view, * * * * While I was 
" musing, the Duke of Marlborough, ever watchful, 

* The following curious statement is inserted in Lieut.-Colonel 
Stearne's journal : " During the siege of Aire, provisions were very 
" scarce ; but one thing gave the soldiers relief, and it is indeed almost 
" incredible and it was the hoards of corn which the mice had laid 
" up in store-houses in the earth, which our men found, and came home 
" daily loaded with corn, which they got out of these hoards." 
Captain Parker alludes to the same circumstance, and adds, 
" These hoards were from four to six feet under ground, and in 
" many of them our men found some pecks of corn." 



THE ROYAL IRISH REGIMENT OF FOOT. 39 

" ever right,, rode up unattended, and posted himself 1711 
" on the right of my company of grenadiers, from whence 
" he had a fair view of the greater part of the enemy's 
" works. It is quite impossible for me to express the 
" j ov which the sight of this man gave me. I was well 
" satisfied he would not push the thing unless he saw 
" a strong probability of success ; nor was this my 
" notion alone ; it was the sense of the whole army, 
" both officers and soldiers, British and Foreigners ; 
" and, indeed, we had all the reason in the world for it, 
" for he never led us on to any one action that we did 
" not succeed in. He stayed only three or four minutes, 
" and then rode back : we were in pain for him while 
" he stayed, lest the enemy might have discovered him, 
" and fired at him, in which case they could not well 
" have missed him. He had not been longer from us 
" than he stayed when orders came to us to retire. 
" As the corn we stood in was high, we slipped oif 
" undiscovered, and were a good way down the hill 
" before they perceived that we were retiring, and 
" then they let fly all their great and small shot after 
" us ; but as we were by this time under the brow of 
" the hill, all their shot went over our heads." This 
statement of a distinguished officer of the EIGHTEENTH 
regiment shows how fully the great Duke of Marl- 
borough possessed the confidence of his troops. 

During the siege of Bouchain, the ROYAL IRISH 
regiment was actively engaged in the trenches and the 
attacks ; but did not sustain a very severe loss. Lieut.- 
Colonel Stearne states, " In this siege our regiment 
" had four officers wounded but none killed, and about 
" forty men killed and wounded ; the grenadiers suffered 
" most. Bouchain being taken, our regiment was or- 
" dered to Tournay, where we were quartered the 
" remaining part of the campaign, from whence we 



40 HISTORICAL RECORD OF THE EIGHTEENTH, OR 

171 L " escorted what provision came that way to the army 
" which continued about Bouchain." In October the re- 
giment marched to Lisle, where it passed the winter. 

1712 In February, 1712, Lieut. -General Ingoldsby died, 
and was succeeded in the colonelcy of the regiment by 
Lieut. -Colonel Stearne, who had held a commission in 
the corps thirty-four years, and wrote an account of its 
services.* 

From Lisle the regiment advanced in April to some 
high ground beyond Bouchain, where a camp was formed 
of several corps, and entrenchments thrown up. The 
ROYAL IRISH regiment afterwards joined the army under 
the orders of the Duke of Ormond, and its grenadier 
company advanced on a reconnoitring party into 
Picardy ; but a suspension of hostilities took place soon 
afterwards, and the army withdrew to Ghent, where 
the regiment passed the winter. The power of France 
was reduced, its armies defeated, its frontier towns 
captured, its ambitious monarch was forced to sue for 
peace, and the treaty of Utrecht gave repose to E urope. 

1713 The ROYAL IRISH regiment had acquired a high 
reputation during the war ; and a board of officers 
being assembled in London, to decide on the rank of 
regiments, Colonel Stearne sent Captain Parker to 
England to claim rank for the regiment from the date 
of its formation in 1684, which would have given it 
rank as FIFTH foot ; but this was not granted, and it 
continued to take date and rank in the English army 
from the time of its arrival in England in the autumn 
of IGSS.f 

* On the appointment of Lieut. -Colonel Stearne to the colonelcy, 
Captain Parker states, " He had served in the regiment from its 
" establishment, and, being a brave and gallant man, he rose gradu- 
" ally, by long service and good fortune, until, from an ensign, he 
" became our colonel." 

f See Note inserted at page 14. 



THE ROYAL IRISH REGIMENT OF FOOT. 41 

During the winter, a very serious mutiny occurred 1713 
among the troops stationed at Ghent, to which the 
soldiers were incited by a man, whom Captain Parker 
calls " a pettifogging attorney from London," who had 
entered the EIGHTEENTH regiment. This dangerous 
combination was suppressed, and ten of the ringleaders 
were executed. 

After the conclusion of the treaty of peace, the 1714 
British regiments quitted Flanders, excepting the 
eighth and EIGHTEENTH, which were appointed to 
garrison the citadel of Ghent until the barrier treaty 
was signed. The Duke and Duchess of Marlborough 
passing through Ghent, the officers of the two regiments 
met His Grace without the town, to show their respect 
to the character of their former commander. 

On the breaking out of the rebellion of the Earl of 1715 
Mar, in the autumn of 1715, the regiment was ordered 
to proceed to England, leaving the lieut.-colonel and a 
hundred men in the castle of Ghent; it landed at 
Greenwich, and marched to Gloucester, where it was 
joined by the party from Ghent in February following. 

From Gloucester the regiment marched to Oxford; 1716 
many persons at this celebrated university were 
disaffected to the government of King George I., and 
on the Prince of Wales's birthday, when the officers of 
the regiment were assembled at one of the inns, to 
celebrate the day, they were assailed by stones thrown 
from a house on the opposite side of the street. A 
number of soldiers, hearing that their officers had been 
thus assailed by the Jacobites, came running to the 
spot, and soon destroyed the windows of the house 
from whence the stones had been thrown. They after- 
wards went from street to street, and broke the windows 
of persons who refused to illuminate for the Prince of 
Wales's birthday. The Vice-Chancellor sent a com- 



42 HISTORICAL RECORD OF THE EIGHTEENTH, OR 

1716 plaint to His Majesty's privy council, and the officers 
were called upon for an explanation. The subject was 
afterwards investigated by the House of Lords, and, 
after several debates, the university was censured for 
not observing the birthday of the Prince of Wales, 
afterwards King George II. 

1717 In May, 1717, the regiment marched to Portsmouth, 
where it received orders to hold itself in readiness to 
proceed abroad. 

Brigadier- General Stearne obtained permission to 
dispose of the colonelcy of the regiment to Lieut. - 
Colonel William Cosby, from the first troop, now first 
regiment of life guards. 

1718 Soon afterwards the regiment embarked for the 
. island of Minorca, where it arrived in the early part of 

1718, and it was stationed there many years, during 
which period little occurred worthy of being recorded. 

1727 In 1727, when the Spaniards besieged Gibraltar, a 
detachment from the regiments at Minorca proceeded 
to that fortress, under Colonel Cosby of the ROYAL 
IRISH regiment, to reinforce the garrison. This de- 
tachment took part in the successful defence of 
Gibraltar against the power of Spain, and when the 
siege was raised, it returned to Minorca. 

1732 While the regiment was at Minorca, Colonel Cosby 
was succeeded by Sir Charles Hotham, Baronet, in 

17351732; and, in 1735, King George II. nominated 
Colonel John Armstrong to the colonelcy. This officer, 

1742 dying in 1742, was succeeded by Colonel John Mor- 
daunt, from the forty-seventh regiment. 

In the same year, the ROYAL IRISH regiment was 
relieved from duty at Minorca, and returned to 
England : it landed at Portsmouth and Southampton, 
and marched to Taunton, and the neighbouring towns, 
where it passed the winter. 



THE ROYAL IRISH REGIMENT OF FOOT. 43 

From Taunton the regiment marched, in the spring 1743 
of 1743, to Exeter and Plymouth, where it was re- 
viewed by Lieut.-General Lord Tyrawley. 

In the spring of 1744, the regiment marched to 1744 
Richmond, and other towns near Hounslow Heath, and 
was reviewed by His Royal Highness the Duke of 
Cumberland. " The regiment gained great reputation 
" by its discipline and good appearance, and had the 
" pleasure of being assured of His Royal Highness' 
" approbation."* After the review, the regiment 
marched to Fareham, and mounted guard over the 
French and Spanish prisoners at Portchester Castle. 

At the battle of Fontenoy, the British troops, support- 1745 
ing the interests of the house of Austria against the 
power of France and Bavaria, were repulsed in their 
attempts to raise the siege of Tournay, and sustained 
severe loss; and the ROYAL IHISH regiment was ordered 
to join the British army in Flanders.* The EIGHTEENTH 
embarked at Gravesend, with a detachment of foot 
guards and the fourteenth regiment, landed at Ostend, 
and, advancing up the country, joined the army, com- 
manded by His Royal Highness the Duke of Cumber- 
land, at the camp at Lessines, in May, 1745. The 
French, having a great superiority of numbers, captured 
several strong towns, and besieged Ostend, when the 
ROYAL IRISH were selected to reinforce the garrison of 
that fortress. The regiment accordingly marched to 
Antwerp, where it embarked on board of Dutch billan- 
ders, in which it sailed to Flushing, where it was 
removed on board of transports that conveyed it to 
Ostend, which town was found abandoned by the in- 
habitants, and besieged by a numerous French force. 
The garrison did not exceed three thousand men, a 
number very inadequate to the defence of the place ; 

* Continuation of General Stearne's Journal. 



44 HISTORICAL RECORD OF THE EIGHTEENTH, OR 

1745 the fortifications had been neglected and were out of 
repair ; and the Austrian governor permitted the enemy 
to gain possession of the sluices before he had inun- 
dated the country round the town. The means of a long 
defence were wanting, and, after holding out until the 
ammunition was nearly expended, and the guns of the 
fortress dismounted, the governor capitulated, on con- 
dition that the garrison should march to the quarters of 
the allied army. The writer of the continuation of Gene- 
ral Stearne's journal complains of the treacherous con- 
duct of the French on this occasion, in causing the garri- 
son to make a considerable detour, employing agents to 
induce, by promises of reward, the soldiers to desert, 
and, after a march of twenty miles in one day, deliver- 
ing the garrison up at a frontier village cantonment 
about seven in the evening, and having a numerous 
force ready to cut off the fatigued men at an early 
hour on the following morning. This was, however, 
defeated; the Duke of Cumberland sent a General 
officer to take charge of the troops on their arrival, 
and, instead of allowing the tired soldiers to go into 
quarters, he ordered them to load their muskets, fix 
their bayonets, and march for Mons. The writer, before 
alluded to, states, " As we every moment expected the 
" enemy, we continued our march in the greatest 
" order; not a whisper was to be heard : the officers who 
" were present will always remember with pleasure 
" the discipline and good disposition every regiment 
"showed on that occasion." ..." So narrow was our 
(< escape, that the French got to their ground within 
" an hour of our passing it, and we saw them in the 
" morning encamped about two miles from Mons." 

The EIGHTEENTH regiment, and other corps from 
Ostend, remained at Mons about three weeks, watched 
by a numerous French force ; but on the approach of a 



THE ROYAL IRISH REGIMENT OF FOOT. 45 

detachment from the allied army, the enemy retired: 1745 
the regiments then marched out at midnight, arrived 
at Charleroi on the following day, and afterwards joined 
the army near Brussels. 

In the autumn of this year, Charles Edward, eldest 
son of the Pretender, raised the standard of his father 
in Scotland, and, being joined by a number of Highland 
clans, penetrated into England. On this occasion the 
ROYAL IRISH regiment marched to Williamstadt, where 
it embarked for England, and, arriving at Gravesend 
on the 5th of November, landed and joined the camp 
at Dartford, where it remained several weeks, and lost 
the surgeon and a number of men from diseases pro- 
duced by being exposed to severe weather in a camp 
in the winter months. 

The regiment returned to Gravesend in March, 1746, 
and embarked for Scotland, with the twelfth, sixteenth, 
and twenty-fourth foot. These corps arrived at Leith 
on the 19th of April, as the guns of Edinburgh castle 
were firing for the victory gained over the rebels at 
Culloden, and this terminated the rebellion. 

The regiment waited at Leith until the return of an 1746 
express from the army, when it received orders to sail 
northward; it landed at Nairn on the Istof May, was can- 
toned in the neighbourhood of that place three weeks, 
and afterwards joined the army at Inverness, at which 
place the regiment was encamped until the autumn, 
when it marched into quarters at Nairn, Elgin, &c. 

In the summer of 1747, the regiment marched to 1747 
Fort Augustus, and encamped among the mountains 
near that place, under the orders of Major- General 
Blakeney, until October, when it marched to Edinburgh 
castle, and Stirling. 

Major-General Sir John Mordaunt was removed to 



46 HISTORICAL RECORD OF THE EIGHTEENTH, OR 

1747 the twelfth dragoons in December of this year, and 
was succeeded in the colonelcy by Colonel John Folliott, 
from the sixty -first foot, a newly-raised corps, afterwards 
disbanded. 

1748 Returning to England in the spring of 1748, the 
regiment was stationed at Berwick, Newcastle, and 
Carlisle, where it remained until~the peace of Aix-la- 
Chapelle, when it marched to Glasgow, and embarked 

1749 for Ireland on the 18th of February, 1749. It was 
stationed at Enniskillen and Ballyshannon twelve 

1750 months, and was removed in 1750 to Kinsale, and in 
1751 to Cork. 

1751 In the Royal warrant of the 1st of July, 1751, the 
uniform of the regiment is directed to be scarlet, faced 
with blue. The First, or King's colour, to be the great 
union ; the Second, or regimental colour, to be of blue 
silk with the union in the upper canton ; in the centre 
of the colour, the HARP in a blue field and the CROWN 
over it ; and in the three corners of the colour, the 
LION OF NASSAU, the arms of King William III. On 
the grenadier caps, the HARP AND CROWN, as on the 
colours. The HARP AND CROWN to be painted in 
the same manner on the drums and bells of arms, 
with the rank of the regiment underneath.* 

1752 From Cork the regiment marched, in 1752, to 

* The Warrant of the 1st July, 1751, issued by command of King 
George II., contained regulations for the Standards, Colours, Cloth- 
ing, &c., of the regiments of Cavalry and Infantry, in order to 
ensure uniformity throughout the army. In this warrant it was 
directed, that in the centre of each colour the Number of the rank of 
the regiment should be painted or embroidered in arold Roman 
characters. In the colours of those regiments authorised to bear any 
Royal Devices, or Ancient Badges, the Rank of the regiment should 
be painted, or embroidered, towards the upper corner. 

A Warrant was also issued by King George III., on the 19th 
December, 1768, containing regulations on the same subject. 



THE ROYAL, IRISH REGIMENT OF FOOT. 47 

Waterford; in 1753 it proceeded to Dublin, and in 1753 
1754 to Londonderry and Ballyshannon. 1754 

Disputes having arisen between Great Britain and 1755 
France, respecting the extent of the British territories 
in North America, hostilities commenced, and the 
regiment was suddenly ordered to England in the 
spring of 1755. It landed at Liverpool on Easter 
Sunday, the 3rd of April, and marched to Berwick, 
where the establishment was augmented to seventy- 
eight men per company, and two companies were 
afterwards added : in October the regiment marched 
to Edinburgh, where it was stationed during the 
winter. 

In February, 1756, the two additional companies were 1756 
incorporated in the fifty -sixth regiment, then newly 
raised ; and in May the EIGHTEENTH were reviewed by 
Lieut.-General Bland, commanding the forces in North 
Britain, and afterwards marched to Fort William, with 
numerous detachments at various posts in the High- 
lands. 

Orders were received in February, 1757, for the 1757 
regiment to proceed to Ireland, and it was stationed 
in that part of the United Kingdom during the 
remainder of the seven years' war. 

Lieut.-General Folliott died in January, 1762, and 1762 
in April King George III. conferred the colonelcy of 
the EIGHTEENTH regiment on Major-General Sir John 
Sebright, Bart., from the eighty-third foot, which corps 
was disbanded in 1763. 

In 1767 the ROYAL IRISH regiment proceeded from 1767 
Ireland to North America, where it was stationed when 
the unfortunate misunderstanding occurred between H75 
Great Britain and her North American colonies on 
the subject of taxation. The Americans manifested 



48 HISTORICAL RECORD OF THE EIGHTEENTH, OR 

1775 a disposition to violence, and three companies of the 
EIGHTEENTH were stationed at Boston, the capital of 
the state of Massachusetts, under the Governor of the 
province, General Gage. 

General Gage, having ascertained that the Americans 
had collected a quantity of military stores at Concord, 
detached the grenadiers and light infantry, including 
the companies of the EIGHTEENTH, to effect the destruc- 
tion of these stores. These companies embarked in 
boats, under Colonel Smith, of the tenth, on the 
evening of the 18th of April, 1775, and sailed up 
Charles river to the marshes of Cambridge, where they 
landed and marched towards Concord. At the 
village of Lexington they were opposed by a party of 
American militia ; some firing occurred, and several 
men were killed and wounded : thus the first blood 
was spilt, and open resistance followed. The King's 
troops continued their march to Concord, and effected 
the destruction of the stores. In the meantime the 
country had been alarmed for many miles, and, when 
the soldiers commenced their journey back to Boston, 
they were fired upon from behind the walls, trees, fences, 
barns, &c., on both sides of the road., and skirmish 
succeeded skirmish until they arrived at Lexington, 
where they were met by Earl Percy's brigade, with 
two field-pieces. The fire of the artillery checked the 
Americans, and the troops continued their march to 
Boston. The flank companies of the ROYAL IRISH 
regiment had two men killed and four wounded on this 
occasion. 

This open resistance to legal authority was fol- 
lowed by the appearance of multitudes of armed 
Americans in the neighbourhood of Boston, and on 
the night of the 16th of June they commenced throw- 



THE ROYAL IRISH REGIMENT OF FOOT. 49 

ing up entrenchments on the peninsula of Charles- 1775 
ton, on a height called Bunker's Hill; and on the 
following day General Gage detached a body of 
troops, of which the flank companies of the ROYAL 
IRISH regiment formed part, to drive the Americans 
from the hill. The attack was made about three o'clock 
in the afternoon, and British valour was conspicuously 
displayed ; but the Americans had a great superiority 
of numbers and a strong post. The King's troops 
were twice arrested in their progress, but by a de- 
termined effort they carried the height at the point 
of the bayonet, and triumphed over thrice their own 
numbers. The loss of the EIGHTEENTH was limited 
to three rank and file killed, Lieutenant William 
Richardson and seven rank and file wounded. 

Although the valour and discipline of the British 
corps in North America were so conspicuous as to 
excite the admiration of their country, yet the few 
corps at Boston were beset by such multitudes of 
opponents, that it became impossible for these ex- 
cellent qualities to be exercised with any prospect of 
ultimate success ; and in the middle of March, 1776, 1776 
the town was abandoned, the British troops embarking 
for Nova Scotia. 

Soon afterwards the regiment received orders to 
transfer its men fit for service to other corps, and 
return to Europe : it arrived in England in July, 
1776, and was stationed at Dover Castle, where it 
remained during the year 1777. 1777 

From Dover, the regiment proceeded to Coxheath, 1778 
where an encampment was formed of the Royal 
Dragoons, five regiments of infantry, and fifteen 
battalions of militia. 

In the summer of 1779, the regiment was encamped 1779 

E 



50 HISTORICAL RECORD OF THE EIGHTEENTH, OR 

at Warley, in the Essex district, with three other 
corps of regular infantry and ten battalions of militia, 
under Lieut.- General Parker. 
1780 The regiment was encamped at Finchley in 1780, 

1782 and afterwards in Hyde Park; and in 1782 it pro- 
ceeded to the island of Jersey, where its numbers 
were reduced to the peace establishment in conse- 
quence of the termination of the American war. 

Leaving Jersey in February, 1782, the thanks of 
the Commander of the forces at that station were 
conveyed to the officers and soldiers of the EIGHTEENTH, 
for their conduct while under his command. The 
regiment was afterwards stationed at Guernsey, where 
an alarming mutiny occurred among the soldiers of the 
104th regiment, who fired upon their officers, and took 
possession of the fort. They were invested by the 
ROYAL IRISH regiment, commanded by Major Maw by, 
and a battalion of militia, and were forced to submit. 
The lieut. -governor thanked the ROYAL IRISH regiment, 
in orders, for its loyal and spirited conduct on this 
occasion, in the strongest terms, and promised to take 
the earliest opportunity of bringing its meritorious con- 
duct before the King. The States of the island also 
conveyed the expression of their thanks and approba- 
tion of the excellent behaviour of the EIGHTEENTH regi- 
ment, accompanied by a vote of 100 guineas, to be di- 
vided among the non-commissioned officers and soldiers. 

1783 In July, 1 783, the regiment proceeded to Portsmouth, 
and in October it embarked for the fortress of Gib- 
raltar. 

1793 While the ROYAL IRISH regiment was employed in 
protecting the important fortress of Gibraltar, a re- 
volution occurred in France ; Louis XVI. was beheaded 
by his subjects in 1793 ; and while anarchy and blood- 



THE ROYAL IRISH REGIMENT OF FOOT. 51 

shed prevailed in France, the republicans of that 1793 
country sought to involve other nations in the same 
calamities. War was the result. A powerful party 
favourable to monarchy still existed in France, many 
patriots stood forward in the cause of royalty, and the 
inhabitants of Toulon joined with Admiral Turgot 
in delivering up that port to the British, who took 
possession of the place in the name of Louis XVII. 
A numerous republican army advanced against Toulon, 
and the allies made exertions to procure troops for the 
defence of the town and harbour. Some corps of 
French loyalists were embodied ; detachments of 
Spaniards, Neapolitans, and Sardinians were procured, 
and the ROYAL IRISH regiment was withdrawn from 
Gibraltar to aid in the protection of this important 
place. 

The regiment arrived at Toulon in November, and 
was actively employed in the defence of the place 
upwards of a month, during which period it was fre- 
quently engaged with the republican troops of France. 

A battery having been erected by the enemy on the 
heights of Arenes, which much annoyed one of the 
principal outposts, a party of the EIGHTEENTH joined 
the troops under Major- General David Dundas, which 
issued from Toulon on the morning of the 30th of 
November, crossed the river, traversed olive- grounds, 
intersected with stone walls, ascended a height cut into 
vine-terraces, and, surprising the French on their post, 
drove them from the battery with signal gallantry. 
The object in view was thus accomplished, but the 
impetuosity of the soldiers could not be restrained; 
they pursued the enemy too far, and, encountering 
*resh adversaries, were forced to retire with loss. The 
ROYAL IRISH regiment had seven men killed on this 

E2 



52 HISTORICAL RECORD OF THE EIGHTEENTH, OR 

1793 occasion, twenty-four wounded, four Serjeants, one 
drummer, and twenty-nine rank and file missing. 

Much difficulty was experienced in defending Toulon 
with twelve thousand men, of five different nations, 
against thirty to forty thousand French troops ; 
a circumference of fifteen miles having to be oc- 
cupied by a number of posts which required nine 
thousand men for their protection, so that three-fourths 
of the men were constantly on duty. On the 17th of 
December, the French attacked the British quarter 
under Captain William Conolly of the EIGHTEENTH, who 
defended his post with great gallantry until the enemy 
had forced the Spanish side, when he fell back fighting 
to another position. The regiment lost Ensign George 
Minchin and two rank and file on this occasion. The 
enemy afterwards attacked the posts on the mountain 
of Pharou, where another party of the EIGHTEENTH was 
engaged, and lost one Serjeant and five rank and file. 

The line of posts being forced, it was found impos- 
sible to preserve the town and harbour, and the French 
shipping, arsenal, and magazines were set on fire, and 
the troops of the several nations embarked on board of 
the fleet on the 19th of December. 

1794 After the evacuation of Toulon, the fleet proceeded 
to the bay of Hieres, and arrangements were made for 
attacking the island of Corsica : the fleet weighed anchor 
on the 24th of January, 1794; but was dispersed by a 
gale of wind. Early in February a landing was effected 
in the gulf of Fiorenzo in the island of Corsica, and a 
series of operations were commenced by which the 
greater part of the island was speedily reduced, and an 
assembly of Deputies afterwards agreed to unite Corsica 
to the British dominions. 

The fortified town of Calm, situate on a tongue of 



THE ROYAL IRISH REGIMENT OF FOOT. 53 

land \vhich forms a beautiful harbour thirty-three miles 1794 
from Bastia, the capital of Corsica, still held out in the 
French interest, and the EIGHTEENTH regiment, com- 
manded by Lieut. -Colonel David Douglas Wemyss, 
was selected to join the troops, under Lieut. -General 
C. Stuart, appointed for the reduction of this fortress. 
The regiment accordingly sailed from Bastia, and, 
having landed near Calvi on the 19th of June, took 
post on a ridge of mountains three miles from the town. 
Owing to the numerous rocky heights and steep accli- 
vities before the town, the soldiers and seamen had to 
make roads along difficult precipices, to drag guns up 
the mountains, and to carry up materials for erecting 
the batteries, which they performed with cheerfulness. 
A practical breach having been made in the west side 
of the Mozello, on the 18th of July the light infantry 
(including the light company of the EIGHTEENTH) and 
the second battalion of the Royals, commanded by 
Lieut.-Colonel Moore, "proceeded with a cool steady 
" confidence, and unloaded arms, towards the enemy, 
" forced their way through a smart fire of musketry, 
" and, regardless of live shells flung into the breach, or 
" the additional defence of pikes, stormed the Mozello ; 
" while Lieut.-Colonel Wemyss, with the ROYAL IRISH 
" regiment, and two pieces of cannon under the direction 
" of Lieutenant Lemoine of the royal artillery, equally 
" regardless of opposition, carried the enemy's battery 
" on the left, and forced the trenches without firing a 
" shot."* 

After the capture of these important posts, the siege 
of Calvi was prosecuted with vigour, and on the 10th 
of August the garrison surrendered. 

* Lieut-General Stuart's despatch. 



54 HISTORICAL RECORD OF THE EIGHTEENTH, OR 

1794 The loss of the ROYAL, IRISH regiment was limited 
to six rank and file killed ; Lieutenant William 
Johnston, one serjeant, and ten rank and file 
wounded. 

In the early part of this year, General Sir John 
Sebright, Bart., died ; and the colonelcy of the regiment 
was conferred on Major-General Sir James Murray, 
Bart., who afterwards took the surname of Pulteney.- 

1195 The ROYAL IRISH regiment was stationed in the 
island of Corsica during the year 1795, and nine 

1796 months of 1796. In the mean time the success of the 
French arms, particularly the brilliant career of Gene- 
ral Bonaparte in Italy, had produced a change of 
sentiment among the inhabitants of Corsica. Bonaparte 
was a native of the island ; the Corsicans gloried in him 
as a man who reflected honour on their country, and they 
regretted that the island had become annexed to Great 
Britain, as this event placed them in hostility to their 
victorious countryman, and they began to plot measures 
to effect its separation. It appearing evident that the 
expense of the defence would exceed the advantage 
derived from the possession of the island, the British 
troops were withdrawn in October, and the EIGHTEENTH 
proceeded to the island of Elba. 

Soon afterwards the regiment was detached, with a 
small force under Colonel Wemyss, to the coast of Italy ; 
the troops landed on the 7th of November, and, having 
driven the French from the principality of Piombino, 
occupied the towns of Campiglia, Castiglione, and 
Piombino, with some advanced posts in the Tuscan 
states. The ROYAL IRISH were commanded by Lieut.- 
Colonel H. T. Montresor, and'distinguished themselves 
on several occasions. They waded through an inunda- 
tion of near three miles, to attack the town of Campiglia^ 



THE ROYAL IRISH REGIMENT OF FOOT. 55 



and made the French garrison prisoners. The enemy 1796 
receiving considerable reinforcements, and advancing 
in force against those towns, the British troops were 
withdrawn from Italy, and returned to Elba. During 
the winter, the EIGHTEENTH regiment sailed for 
Gibraltar, where it arrived in the beginning of 1797, 1797 
and was stationed at that fortress during the two 1793 
following years. 1799 

In the spring of 1800, the regiment was withdrawn 1800 
from Gibraltar, to join the armament preparing for 
active service in the Mediterranean : it proceeded to 
Minorca, where the land-forces were assembled, and in 
the summer sailed under the orders of Lieut. -General 
Sir Ralph Abercromby for Genoa, to co"- operate with 
the Austrians ; but the victories gained by the French 
in Italy occasioned this enterprise to be abandoned, 
and the EIGHTEENTH returned to Minorca. 

The regiment afterwards sailed with the expedition 
against Cadiz, and it had entered the boats of the 
fleet for the purpose of effecting a landing and attack- 
ing Cadiz, when orders were received to return on 
board the shipping ; the attack of this place having 
been relinquished in consequence of an infectious disease 
of a fatal character ravaging the city ; and the arma- 
ment sailed to Gibraltar. 

After some delay, the EIGHTEENTH regiment again 
proceeded to Minorca. 

In the meantime a powerful French army had taken 
possession of Egypt, with the view of colonizing that 
country, and making it the base of future conquests 
in the east, and the ROYAL IRISH regiment was called 
from Minorca to take part in the expulsion of the 
boasted invincible legions of France from Egypt. The 
regiment accordingly quitted Minorca without landing, 



56 HISTORICAL RECORD OF THE EIGHTEENTH, OR 

1 800 and sailed to Malta, where it joined the armament under 
Lieut. -General Sir Ralph Abercromby, and was formed 
in brigade with the thirtieth, forty-fourth, and eighty- 
ninth, under the orders of Brigadier- General Doyle. 
The troops were soon restored and reanimated, after 
having been so long at sea, by the abundance of fresh 
provisions which the island of Malta afforded, and the 
comforts of the beautiful city of Valetta, and on the 
20th of December the fleet sailed for the bay of Marmo- 
rice, in Asiatic Turkey, where it arrived in nine days. 

1801 In this bay, environed by mountains covered with the 
foliage of trees, the troops remained several weeks, 
while preparations were being completed, and a plan 
of co operation was arranged with the Turks, whose 
tardy proceedings detained the expedition some time. 
On the 23rd of February, 1801, the fleet again put to 
sea, presenting a splendid sight ; the magnitude of the 
armament, and the gaiety of the brave men on board, 
being calculated to excite emotions of an interesting 
character. On the 1st of March, the armament arrived 
off the celebrated city of Alexandria, and anchored in 
the bay of Aboukir. 

Early on the morning of the 8th of March, five thou- 
sand British troops entered the boats to effect a landing 
in the face of an adverse army, and the ROYAL IRISH 
regiment, having j oined the second brigade under Major- 
General Cradock, entered some small Greek ships to 
be in readiness to support the gallant men who should 
first land on the shores of Egypt. A rocket gave the 
expected signal, and the clear silence of the morning 
was instantly broken by the deep murmur of a 
thousand oars urging forward the flower of a brave 
army, whose polished arms gleamed in the rays of the 
morning sun. Suddenly the thunder of artillery shook 



THE ROYAL IRISH REGIMENT OF FOOT. 57 

the ground, and a tempest of balls cut the surface of 1801 
the water ; but the British soldiers speedily gained 
the shore in the face of this tempest of war, and, rushing 
forward to close upon their enemies with the bayonet, 
soon decided the contest and forced the French to 
retreat with loss. The EIGHTEENTH regiment, com- 
manded by Lieut. -Colonel Montresor, was one of the first 
corps which landed to support the leading division, and 
to participate in this splendid triumph of British valour. 

Advancing towards Alexandria, the British troops 
encamped near Mandora Tower, and on the 13th of 
March they proceeded through a wood of date-trees 
to attack the French forces posted on a ridge of heights 
in front. The ROYAL IRISH deployed under a heavy 
fire, with the other corps of their brigade, and 
executed the manoeuvre with admirable order and 
precision ; and, advancing upon their adversaries, com- 
pelled the French to retire from their position. A 
strong body of French cavalry charged the leading 
corps of the British right column, but was repulsed. 
Under the cover of some sand-hills, a body of French 
dragoons rode towards the British second brigade, and 
attempted to penetrate the interval between the 
EIGHTEENTH and the regiment on their left : the French 
troopers were checked by a prompt and well-directed 
fire from the light company of the EIGHTEENTH, which 
was followed by a rapid platoon fire from the regiment, 
and the French horsemen made a precipitate retreat. 
They belonged to the eighteenth French dragoons, and 
had been mistaken, by one British battalion, for a 
foreign corps in the English service. 

The French, having been driven from their post, 
fell back to an entrenched position before Alexandria ; 
and the British, after reconnoitring the ground, en- 



58 HISTORICAL RECORD OF THE EIGHTEENTH, OR 

1801 camped in front of the enemy's lines. Speaking of 
the conduqt of the army, on this occasion, in general 
orders, Sir .Ralph Abercromby stated that he 
felt it " incumbent on him particularly to express 
" his most perfect satisfaction with the steady and 
" gallant conduct of Major-General Cradock's bri- 
" gade." The conduct of the brigade was also com- 
mended in the General's public despatch. 

The loss of the ROYAL IRISH regiment was Captain 
George Jones, killed ; three officers, one serjeant, and 
forty-five rank and file wounded. 

On the morning of the 21st of March, the French 
issued from their position, and attacked the British 
line ; but they encountered an opposition which they 
were unable to overcome, and the English army was 
once more triumphant over the numerous veteran 
troops of France. This action afforded the ROYAL 
IRISH regiment another opportunity of gaining honour 
on the distant shores of Egypt ; and its gallant bearing 
throughout the day was conspicuous. This victory 
was however clouded with the fall of the brave SIR 
RALPH ABERCROMBY, who died of wounds received in 
action. He was succeeded in the command of the 
army by Major-General (afterwards Lord) Hutchinson. 

Soon afterwards a body of British troops traversed 
the country to Rosetta, where a small force of British, 
Turks, and Greeks was assembled, and took post at 
Hamed. The EIGHTEENTH regiment, and two other 
corps, followed on the 13th of April, and, after the 
surrender of Fort St. Julian, a strong division of the 
army advanced up the banks of the Nile, to attack 
the French troops in Upper Egypt. 

The ROYAL IRISH regiment took part in the opera- 
tions by which the French were driven from El Aft, 



THE ROYAL IRISH REGIMENT OF FOOT. 59 

and from the fortified post of Rahmanie, and forced to 1801 
retire upon Cairo. 

Foljowing the retreating enemy up the country, the 
EIGHTEENTH arrived, with the army, -at the vicinity 
of the celebrated pyramids of Egypt, in the early part 
of June ; and after a halt of several days they ad- 
vanced upon the city of Cairo, which was besieged by 
the united British and Turkish forces, and in a few 
days the garrison surrendered, on condition of being 
sent back to France. 

The capture of the #apital of Egypt added fresh 
laurels to the British arms; and the troops which had 
acquired these honours retired down the Nile to the 
vicinity of Alexandria, and, having driven in the French 
outposts, commenced the siege of that place with vigour. 
In the beginning of September, the garrison sur- 
rendered, on condition of being sent back to France. 

Thus was Egypt delivered from the power of France ; 
and the British troops, which overcame the boasted 
invincible legions of Bonaparte, and forced the Army of 
the East to surrender its conquests, were rewarded with 
the thanks of Parliament, the approbation of their 
Sovereign, and the royal authority to bear on their 
colours the " SPHINX," with the word " EGYPT ; " and 
the officers were permitted to receive gold medals from 
the Grand Seignior. 

Immediately after the conquest of Egypt, the British 
generals and admirals endeavoured to promote still 
further the interests of their country by preparing to 
make additional acquisitions, and the ROYAL IRISH 
regiment was one of the corps selected to proceed on 
another expedition. Several corps sailed on the 12th 
of September; but were met at sea by a ship of war 
bringing information that the preliminaries of a treaty 



60 HISTORICAL RECORD OF THE EIGHTEENTH, OR 

1801 of peace were signed; the troops proceeded to Malta, 
where the ROYAL IRISH regiment arrived in October. 

After performing garrison duty at Valetta for 
six weeks, the regiment proceeded to the island of 
Elba, and occupied the fortress of Porto Ferrajo, the 
French being in possession of other parts of the 
island. 

1802 The treaty of Amiens being concluded, the regiment 
sailed for Ireland in the summer of 1802, and after 
landing at Cork proceeded to Armagh. 

1803 War was resumed in 1803, and in the summer of 
that year the regiment marched to Newry, where it 
was augmented to two battalions, from the army of 
reserve. Both battalions were completed to 1100 men 
each in less than two months, and in October the first 
battalion embarked from Ireland for Scotland; it 
landed at Greenock, and proceeded from thence to 
Edinburgh. It was followed to Scotland by the second 
battalion, which was stationed a short time at Stirling 
castle ; but on the removal of the first battalion from 
Edinburgh to Haddington, the second battalion pro- 
ceeded to D unbar. 

1804 The threat of invading England made by Napoleon 
Bonaparte, with the progress of the naval preparations 
on the coast of France, and the presence of a numerous 
French army at Boulogne, occasioned the regiment to 
be withdrawn from Scotland in the summer of 1804, 
and to proceed to the south of England, to be in 
readiness to repel the invaders, should they venture to 
land. On quitting Haddington, Lieut.-Colonel Mon- 
tresor received a highly gratifying letter from the 
magistrates and clergy of that place, expressing their 
admiration of the peaceable and regular behaviour of 
the non-commissioned officers and soldiers of the first 



THE ROYAL IRISH REGIMENT OF FOOT. 61 

battalion during their stay at Haddington, and a tribute 1804 
of public respect to the officers for their gentlemanly 
deportment towards the respectable inhabitants in the 
neighbourhood. 

Both battalions landed at Ramsgate, and joined the 
troops encamped on Barham Downs. On the breaking 
up of the camp, the second battalion embarked for the 
island of Jersey. 

Towardsthe end of January, the first battalion em- 1805 
barked for the island of Jamaica, where it arrived in 
May. 

In 1807 the second battalion proceeded to the 1807 
West Indies, and was stationed at the island of 
Curaqoa. 

The ROYAL IRISH regiment being employed in 1808 
guarding the colonial possessions of Great Britain, its 1809 
services were valuable to the Crown and to the kingdom, 
and the exemplary conduct of both battalions was 
commended by the general officers under whom the 
regiment served ; but the performance of this duty 
precluded the EIGHTEENTH sharing in the brilliant 
campaigns of the British army in the Peninsula, where 
several corps acquired numerous honorary inscriptions 
for their regimental colours. 

The first battalion sailed from Jamaica on the 7th 
of June, 1809, with the troops under Major-General 
Sir Hugh Lyle Carmichael, to aid the Spaniards in 
their attempt to reduce the city of St. Domingo. The 
British troops landed about thirty miles from the 
place, and, advancing to the besieged fortress, found 
the Spanish army greatly reduced by sickness. Prompt 
measures were adopted for an attack on the place by 
storm by the British troops, and the EIGHTEENTH were 
under arms to take part in this service, when hostilities 



62 HISTORICAL RECORD OF THE EIGHTEENTH, OR 

1809 were suddenly terminated by the surrender of the 
French garrison. 

After the deliverance of the city of St. Domingo 
from the power of France, the ROYAL IRISH returned 
to Jamaica. 

1810 Very severe losses having been sustained by the 
second battalion from the climate of the West Indies, 
it was directed to transfer its men fit for service to the 
first battalion, and embark for England to recruit. It 
arrived at Ottery barracks, in Devonshire, in October 
1810, and was joined by the regimental depot, amount- 
ing to upwards of five hundred men. 

jgll In the spring of 1811 the second battalion proceeded 
to the island of Jersey. 

On the decease of General Sir James Pulteney, 
Bart., His Royal Highness the Prince Regent con- 
ferred the colonelcy of the ROYAL IRISH regiment on 
Lieut.-General John Lord Hutchinson, K.B., after- 
wards Earl of Donoughmore, from the fifty-seventh 
regiment, by commission dated the 27th of April, 
1811. 

1814 The second battalion was employed on garrison duty 
in the island of Jersey until the power of Napoleon 
Bonaparte was overthrown by the armies of the allies, 
and the Bourbon family was restored to the throne of 
France, which was accompanied by the restoration of 
peace to Europe. A reduction was, in consequence, 
made in the strength of the British army, and the 
second battalion of the ROYAL IRISH regiment was 
disbanded at Jersey on the 24th of October 1814, 
transferring its non-commissioned officers and private 
soldiers fit for duty to the first battalion. 

1817 After twelve years' service in Jamaica, during 
which time it had suffered severely from the effects of 



THE ROYAL IRISH REGIMENT OF FOOT. 63 

climate, and had lost upwards of fifty officers and 1817 
nearly three thousand non-commissioned officers and 
soldiers, the ROYAL IRISH regiment received orders to 
return to England. It landed at Portsmouth in March, 
1817, in so complete a state of discipline and efficiency, 
that it was ordered to proceed to Brighton, where it 
had the honour of furnishing the usual guard for the 
Prince Regent during His Royal Highness' stay at 
the Pavilion. The regiment was afterwards removed 
to Chatham and Sheerness, and in August it proceeded 
to Hilsea barracks. 

Early in 1818 the ROYAL IRISH regiment marched to 1818 
Haslar barracks and Gosport; in December it em- 
barked for Ireland, and, after landing at Cork, pro- 
ceeded to Fermoy. 

From Fermoy the regiment marched, in January, 1819 
1819, to Waterford, Wexford, Carlow, Duncannon-fort, 
and Kilkenny ; and the excellent conduct of the men, 
during their stay in these quarters, elicited the admira- 
tion and gratitude of the public authorities of the 
several places, which was communicated to the corps in 
the strongest terms. 

In July, 1820, the regiment marched to Cork. 1820 

Orders having been received for the regiment to 1821 
transfer its services to Malta, it embarked from Cork 
in February, 1821, and after its arrival on that island 
the head- quarters were established in the Cottonera 
district, with one company detached to the small island 
of Gozo. 

In November, 1822, the regiment was removed to St. 1822 
Elmo barracks and Valetta, where the detached com- 
pany joined from the island of Gozo. 

After remaining twelvemonths at St. Elmo barracks, 1823 
the regiment was removed to Floriana barracks in 



64 HISTORICAL RECORD OF THE EIGHTEENTH, OR 

1823 November, 1823, detaching two companies to Fort 
Manuel and Tignie. 

1824 On the 8th of May, 1824, the first division of the 
regiment embarked from Malta for the Ionian Islands, 
and was followed by the head-quarters in June, on 
which occasion the following general order, dated 
Malta, 18th of June, 1824, was issued: 

" The jMarquis of Hastings, having been long ac- 
" quainted with the high character of the ROYAL IRISH 
" regiment of infantry, cannot suffer that distinguished 
" corps to quit this island without expressing his 
" regret at losing its services. The report made to 
" him, by Major-General Sir Manley Power, of the 
" uniformly excellent conduct maintained by the officers 
" and men of the regiment, during their residence here, 
" authorizes the Marquis of Hastings to request that 
" they will accept his applause, and his sincere wishes 
" for their future welfare. 

" By command of His Excellency, 

"C. BAYLEY, A.M.S." 

The last division of the regiment arrived at Corfu 
on the 24th of June, and occupied quarters in the 
citadel. 

1825 In July, 1825, four companies and the head-quarters 
proceeded to Fort Neuf, leaving the remaining compa- 
nies in the citadel. In August the regiment was formed 
into six service and four depot companies. 

The head-quarters and flank companies returned to 
the citadel on the 14th of November, and on the same 
day four battalion companies embarked for Santa 
Maura, furnishing detachments at Calamas, Magnassia, 
Fort Alexandria, San Nicolo, Fort Constantino, Scorpio, 
San Nichola, and Vassaliki. 



THE ROYAL IRISH REGIMENT OF FOOT. 65 

The regiment remained at the Ionian Islands until 1832 
February, 1832, when it embarked from Corfu for Eng- 
land, and landed at Portsmouth on the 7th of March. 

The decease of General the Earl of Donoughmore 
occurred in the summer of 1832, when King William 
IV. appointed Lieut. -General Matthew Lord Aylmer, 
K.C.B., from the fifty-sixth foot, to the colonelcy of the 
ROYAL IRISH regiment, by commission dated 23rd of 
July, 1832. 

The regiment remained in England until May, 1834, 1834 
when it embarked from Liverpool, and, landing at ]835 
Dublin, was stationed in Ireland nearly three years, 1836 
during which period it preserved its high character. 

Having received orders to transfer its services to 1837 
the British possessions in Asia, the ROYAL IRISH regi- 
ment was divided into six service and four depot 
companies, and on the 10th of January, 1837, the 
service companies embarked for Ceylon, under the 
orders of Colonel George Burr ell : they landed at 
Colombo on the 1st of June, and were stationed at 
that place and at Galle. 

In the autumn of 1838 the depot companies em- 1838 
barked from Dublin, and, landing at Portsmouth, were 
stationed in South Britain. 

The service companies remained at Colombo and 1839 
Galle until February, 1839, when a change of quarters 
took place, and they were stationed at Trincomalee 
and Galle, where they continued until March of the 
following year. 

In the mean time a course of violence and spoliation 1840 
had been commenced by the Chinese government 
against the persons and property of the British mer- 
chants trading with that empire, in consequence of the 
introduction of opium into China, which was prohibited 



66 HISTORICAL RECORD OF THE EIGHTEENTH, OR 

1 840 by the Chinese laws, but was tacitly admitted by the 
local authorities, who did not enforce the law. At 
length, however, the Chinese authorities commenced 
summary measures without sufficient previous notice, 
and the British superintendents of trade found it 
necessary to apply to the Governor-General of India 
for a number of ships of war and armed vessels for 
the protection of life and property. The violence of 
the Chinese, however, could not be restrained by reason 
or menace, but the thunder of British artillery was 
necessary to enforce forbearance. 

The British government found it necessary to send 
an expedition to the Chinese seas, to compel the 
government of the " Celestial empire " to acknowledge 
the principles of international law, as adopted by 
civilized nations, and the ROYAL IRISH regiment was 
one of the corps selected for this service. Three 
companies from the depot embarked from Portsmouth 
in October, 1839, and arrived at Bombay in March, 
1840, and they afterwards sailed for China : three 
companies embarked from Trincomalee in May, and 
three from Galle in June, and sailed for the Chinese 
seas. 

Hostilities having been found unavoidable, it became 
important to gain possession of a portion of the Chinese 
territory, and the governor of Chusan, an island lying 
off the coast, and comprising in its jurisdiction a small 
group of islands, was summoned to surrender in the 
beginning of July. He, however, made dispositions to 
defend the place, and on the morning of the 5th of 
July the shore was crowded with Chinese troops, and 
the landing place, wharf, and adjoining hill displayed 
an array of military power. The British shipping 
silenced the enemy's war-junks and batteries ; and the 



THE ROYAL IRISH REGIMENT OF FOOT. 67 

right wing of the ROYAL IRISH regiment, commanded 1840 
by Major Henry William Adams, with the Koyal 
Marines of the fleet, forming the advance, landed. They 
were followed by other corps, and the British troops, 
commanded by Brigadier-General George Burrell, 
Lieut. -Colonel of the EIGHTEENTH, took up a position 
in front of the fortified city of Ting-hae-hien, from whence 
a sharp fire was kept up for some time ; but before 
the following day the Chinese soldiers fled in a panic. 
The city was taken possession of, and this success gave 
presage of future conquests ; but the climate proved 
injurious to the health of the troops, and many soldiers 
died. 

This display of British prowess was followed by 
negotiations ; and in August the other three companies 
of the regiment landed on the island of Chusan, a 
detachment taking post at Tsin-Kong. 

The tardy councils of the Chinese were expedited by 1841 
the activity of the British naval force, and in the early 
part of 1841 they agreed to give up the island of Hong- 
Kong, pay an indemnity of six million dollars, and open 
a direct intercourse for trading upon an equal footing. 
The detachment of the ROYAL IRISH stationed at Tsin- 
Kong joined the head-quarters, and on the 17th of 
February the regiment embarked for Hong-Kong, 
where it arrived in seven days, and the island was 
taken possession of; but the Chinese authorities ap- 
peared by their conduct to have no intention of fulfil- 
ling the other stipulations of the treaty. Hostilities 
were in consequence resumed, and the ROYAL IRISH 
regiment sailed with the expedition up the Canton 
river. The fleet silenced the batteries of Wantong, 
and a body of troops landing, the island was captured 
without the loss of a man, thirteen hundred Chinese 

F 2 



68 HISTORICAL RECORD OF THE EIGHTEENTH, OR 

1841 soldiers surrendering prisoners of war. Continuing 
the voyage up the river, the fleet arrived at the bar, 
destroyed the enemy's war -junks, and the works were 
stormed and captured by the Marines, &c. As 
the expedition pursued its voyage up the river, the 
Chinese abandoned several batteries and armed rafts, 
and solicited terms of peace ; but procrastination 
appeared to be their only object, and the British fleet 
advanced. The forts in front of Canton soon fell 
under the fire of British artillery, the Chinese flotilla 
was destroyed, and terms of peace were again solicited 
by the authorities of the " Celestial empire." While 
negotiations were pending, bodies of Tartar troops 
were arriving at Canton, which exposed the object of 
the enemy ; and on the 24th of May the ROYAL IRISH 
regiment and other British troops landed. On the 
following day they advanced against the fortified 
heights on the north of the city, and dispositions were 
made for the attack, when the EIGHTEENTH, commanded 
by Lieut.- Colonel Adams, supported by the Royal 
Marines, the whole under Major-General Burrell, were 
directed to carry a hill in their front. 

Major-General Sir Hugh Gough stated in his 
public despatch, "About half past nine o'clock the 
" advance was sounded, and it has seldom fallen to 
" my lot to witness a more soldierlike and steady 
" advance, or a more animated attack. Every indi- 
" vidual, native as well as European, steadily and 
" gallantly did his duty. The EIGHTEENTH and forty- 
" ninth were emulous which should first reach their 
" appointed goals ; but under this impulse, they did 
" not lose sight of that discipline which could alone 
" ensure success." 

The heights were carried by a spirited effort, the 



THE ROYAL IRISH REGIMENT OF FOOT. 69 

British colours waved triumphantly on the captured 1841 
forts, and the soldiers looked down on Canton within a 
hundred paces of its walls. 

A fortified Chinese camp had been established on the 
high ground on the north-east of the city, and from this 
camp bodies of the enemy advanced against the 
British troops. The EIGHTEENTH, forty-ninth, and a 
company of Marines, met and repulsed the principal 
attack, and, following the fugitives along a causeway, 
stormed and captured the entrenched camp in gallant 
style. Major- General Sir Hugh Gough stated in his 
despatch, " I have to record my approval of the 
" spirited conduct of Captain JOHN GRATTAN, who 
" commanded the two leading companies of the 
" EIGHTEENTH across the causeway." The camp was 
burnt, and the magazines were destroyed. 

On the following morning a flag of truce was seen on 
the walls, and hostilities were suspended ; but procrasti- 
nation still appearing to be the object of the Chinese, 
preparations were made to attack the city by storm, and 
the ROYAL IRISH were under arms waiting for the signal 
to rush forward and achieve the conquest of the cele- 
brated city of Canton, when an agreement to terms 
suddenly prevented further hostilities, the Chinese 
paying six millions of dollars for the redemption of 
Canton, and opening the port for trade. 

The ROYAL IRISH regiment, commanded by Lieut- 
Colonel Henry William Adams, had two men killed ; 
Captain John James Sargent, Lieutenants George 
Milliard and David Edwards, and sixteen men 
wounded. 

On the 2nd of June, the regiment embarked for the 
ceded island of HONG-KONG, where it arrived in a few 
days ; and this station proving healthy and convenient, 
works were constructed for its protection. 



70 HISTORICAL RECORD OF THE EIGHTEENTH, OR 

1841 The Emperor of China disregarded the stipulations 
of treaties, and issued a mandate for the extermination 
of the English who dared thus to insult his coasts and 
capture his towns, offering, at the same time, immense 
rewards for the heads of the British commanders, and 
even a large sum for the head of a private soldier. 
His decrees were responded to by depriving him of a 
greater extent of territory ; and on the 22nd of August 
the ROYAL IRISH sailed on an expedition against the 
island and city of Amoy, situate in a fine gulf in the 
province of Fokien, the great tea district of China. 
On the 25th of August the fleet arrived before Amoy, 
which was defended by five hundred pieces of cannon 
and a numerous force ; but nothing could withstand 
the combined efforts of the British naval and land 
force. On the following day the works were bombarded 
two hours. The KOYAL IRISH landed about three 
o'clock, with little opposition, and escaladed a castel- 
lated wall with great gallantry. They were speedily 
within the works, and afterwards charged up a precipi- 
tous gorge in the face of two posts of defence, and 
rushing forward with great gallantry, the Chinese 
and Tartar soldiers fled in dismay, after firing a few 
shots. The regiment remained on the heights above 
the city during the night ; and on the following morn- 
ing the troops advanced towards the wall. No resist- 
ance was made, the advance of the EIGHTEENTH 
escaladed the walls, opened the gates, and the city 
was taken possession of. The small island of Koolangsoo 
was captured on the preceding day. The loss of the 
regiment was limited to two men wounded. 

On the 5th of September, the regiment sailed with 
the expedition for the recapture of Chusan, which 
island had been given up in consequence of the stipu- 
lations of the first treaty. The place was found more 



THE ROYAL IRISH REGIMENT OF FOOT. 71 

strongly fortified than before, and a resolute stand was 1841 
made by the Chinese; but British skill and valour 
prevailed. The EIGHTEENTH landed on the 1st of 
October, stormed the enemy's works with great 
gallantry, under Lieut.-Colonel Adams, and occupied 
the Joss-house hill, Captain Francis Wigston particu- 
larly distinguishing himself at the head of the 
grenadier company of the regiment. The ROYAL IRISH 
afterwards entered the city of Ting-hae-hien at the 
western gate, and the British colours were -speedily 
planted in triumph on the walls. The regiment had one 
serjeant and six rank and file Bounded on this occasion. 

On the following day the regiment traversed the 
island to Tsin-kong, and afterwards proceeded to 
Sahoo ; but returned to Ting-hae-hien on the 4th of 
October, and on the 6th embarked with the expedition 
against the city of Chinhae, the military depot of the 
province, situate on the mainland opposite Chusan, 
and surrounded by a wall of extraordinary height and 
thickness. The troops landed on the 10th of October, 
advanced through a difficult country towards the city, 
and stormed the works covering the approach to the 
place, overthrowing all opposition. " The EIGHTEENTH 
" charged up a deep gorge to the left, and broke 
" through the central encampment, carrying every- 
" thing before them."* The city was captured, and in 
it was an extensive arsenal, and cannon foundry, with 
military stores. The EIGHTEENTH crossed the river and 
entered the city on the same evening : their loss was 
one man killed and three wounded, 

From Chinhae the ROYAL IRISH proceeded up the 
river on the 13th of October, against the fortified city 

* Major-General Sir Hugh Cough's despatch. 



72 HISTORICAL RECORD OF THE EIGHTEENTH, OR 

1841 of Ningpo, where no resistance was met with. The 
troops landed and formed on the ramparts, the band of 
the EIGHTEENTH playing " God save the Queen," and 
they took possession of the second city in the province of 
Che-Keang, containing a population of three hundred 
thousand souls. The regiment was afterwards stationed 
in the city of Ningpo some time ; and the Chinese 
having garrisoned several forts up the river, the flank 
companies embarked on the 27th of December, with an 
expedition to dislodge the Chinese and Tartar soldiers 
from their posts, but the enemy fled without waiting to 
be attacked, and the companies returned to Ningpo. N 

1842 The flank companies proceeded to You- You on the 
10th of January, 1842, and were engaged in routing 
the enemy, and destroying their encampment the day 
following. 

During the first three months of the year 1842, four 
companies of the regiment were stationed at the city 
of Ningpo, under Major Nicholas R. Tomlinson, and five 
companies at Koolangsoo,, under Major Jeremiah 
Cowper. 

On the 10th of March a numerous army of Tartars 
and Chinese made a sudden attack upon Ningpo^ esca- 
lading the walls, and forcing some of the gates, with 
great spirit, and the few British forces in garrison were 
enveloped by crowds of assailants ; but the bravery of 
the British was conspicuous, and they triumphed over 
their numerous opponents. A guard of the regiment, 
consisting of Lieutenant Anthony W. S. F.Armstrong, 
one serjeant, and twenty-three rank and file, stationed 
at the West-gate, being attacked by large numbers, 
behaved steadily, and gallantly drove the enemy back, 
capturing two banners, the bearers of which had 
been shot at the gate : the spirited behaviour of Lieu- 



THE ROYAL IRISH REGIMENT OF FOOT. 73 

tenant Armstrong was commended in the public de- 1842 
spatches. 

Five days afterwards, the EIGHTEENTH embarked 
from Ningpo, and sailed up the river to attack the 
enemy's posts. On the 15th of March they were 
engaged at Tsekee, and the heights of Segaon, which 
were captured; and the ROYAL IRISH also took part in 
forcing the 'Chankee-pass : they returned to Ningpo on 
the 17th of March. 

Three companies of the EIGHTEENTH were withdrawn 
from Koolangsoo at the end of March, and proceeded 
in a steam- vessel to Ningpo, to reinforce the garrison : 
in April two companies proceeded from Ningpo to 
Chinhae. One company was afterwards withdrawn 
from Chinhae and five from Ningpo, to take part in 
the expedition against the fortified city of Chapoo, under 
the command of Lieut. -Colonel Tomlinson. A landing 
was effected on the 18th of May ; British prowess was 
again conspicuous, and the EIGHTEENTH were distin- 
guished for their heroic bearing at the attack and 
capture of this place, on which occasion Lieut.-Colonel 
NICHOLAS R. TOMLINSON fell at the head of the regi- 
ment, "in full career of renown, honoured by the 
" corps, and lamented by all."* 

The loss of the regiment at the capture of this place 
was Lieut.-Colonel Tomlinson, one serjeant, and three 
rank and file killed ; Lieutenants Edward Jodrell and 
Alexander Murray, one serjeant, one drummer, and 
twenty-seven rank and file wounded. Major Jeremiah 
Cowper was promoted to the rank of Lieut.-Colonel on 
the 19th May, 1842, in succession to Lieut.-Colonel 
Tomlinson ; and Brevet Major John Grattan received 
the Majority. These brilliant successes had taught the 

* Sir Hugh Cough's despatch. * 



74 HISTORICAL RECORD OF THE EIGHTEENTH, OR 

1842 Chinese the true character of British skill, spirit of 
enterprise, and valour, yet, with unaccountable infa- 
tuation, the authorities of the " Celestial empire" still 
looked for success, and their resistance gave the 
EIGHTEENTH opportunities of gaining additional 
honours. In June six companies of the regiment were 
employed in an expedition up the Yangtse-Keang 
river, and took part in the capture of the fortified post 
of Woosung, and also in the capture of Poonshau ; they 
afterwards advanced against the city of Shanghae, which 
was taken possession of without opposition. 

The company of the regiment stationed at Chinhae 
was withdrawn to take part in active operations, and 
seven companies sailed with the expedition to carry on 
operations against Chin-Keang-foo, one of the strongest 
and most important cities of China. To proceed on 
this enterprise the fleet left Woosung on the 6th of 
July, the Chinese troops were driven from Suyshan, 
and on the 20th of July the armament approached 
Chin-Keang-foo. A landing was effected, and the 
EIGHTEENTH evinced the same intrepidity and valour 
in the attack of the enemy's entrenched camp, and at 
the capture of the city by storm, on the 21st of July, 
for which they had previously been distinguished. 
On passing through the city and suburbs, the troops 
witnessed the painful spectacle of hundreds of the dead 
bodies of men, women, and children, lying in the houses, 
numerous families having destroyed themselves 
sooner than outlive the disgrace of their city being 
captured by foreigners. 

The ROYAL IRISH regiment had Captain Charles 
J. Russell Collinson and two soldiers killed ; Lieu- 
tenant Scroope Bernard, one serjeant, and fifteen rank 
and file wounded. 



THE ROYAL IRISH REGIMENT OF FOOT. 75 

This brilliant success of the British arms filled the 1842 
Chinese empire with consternation and dismay, and the 
English General prepared to carry his victorious troops 
into the heart of the empire, and attack Nankin, the 
ancient capital of China, to which place the fugitives 
from Chin-Keang-foo had fled for refuge. Embark- 
ing on the 29th of July to carry out this important 
object, the armament proceeded against the celebrated 
city of Nankin, where the ROYAL IRISH and other corps 
arrived on the 9th of August, when a great portion of 
the troops landed, and the ancient capital of China 
was environed by the British, naval and land forces. 
This decisive step produced the desired results ; the 
court of China could no longer hope that its legions 
would eventually arrest the victorious career of the 
British arms, and conditions of peace were acceded to ; 
the Chinese paying an indemnity, and ceding a portion 
of territory to the British crown. 

Thus terminated a war in which the EIGHTEENTH, 
or the ROYAL IRISH, regiment, had acquired additional 
reputation ; a hostile nation had been impressed with 
a just sense of the capabilities of the English arms; 
and important commercial and national advantages 
had been acquired for the British empire. 

Her Majesty, in consideration of the gallantry dis- 
played by the troops employed on the coasts and rivers 
of China, was graciously pleased to permit the 
EIGHTEENTH (ROYAL IRISH), twenty-sixth, forty-ninth, 
fifty-fifth, and ninety-eighth regiments, and Royal 
Artillery, to bear -on their colours and appointments 
the word " China" and the device of the " Dragon" 
in commemoration of their distinguished services. 

After the termination of the contest, the EIGHTEENTH 
sailed from Nankin to the island of Chusan, where 



76 HISTORICAL RECORD OF THE EIGHTEENTH, OR 

1842 they arrived in October : the head- quarters sailed for 
Koolangsoo on the 17th of November, leaving four 
companies of the regiment at Chusan. 

1843 The regiment remained at Koolangsoo during the 
year 1843. 

1844 On the 1st of April the light company embarked at 
Koolangsoo, and arrived at Chusan on the 10th of 
that month. The head-quarters proceeded from 
Koolangsoo to Chusan in the middle of May, and 
remained there during the year. 

1845 The head quarters of the regiment proceeded from 
Chusan to Hong Kong on the 22nd of February : the 
left wing arrived at Hong Kong from Chusan on the 
12th of May. 

1846 During the year 1846 the regiment remained at 
Hong Kong. 

1847 The head-quarters, consisting of twenty-four officers, 
thirty- four Serjeants, seven drummers, and four hundred 
and sixty-eight rank and file, embarked at Hong 
Kong for active service on the 1st of April, 1847, and 
were employed during the combined naval and military 
operations on the Canton river under Major- General 
D'Aguilar, C.B., and returned to Hong Kong on the 
morning of the 9th of April, 1847, leaving a detach- 
ment at Canton of three officers, six Serjeants, and 
sixty- two men, which returned to Hong Kong on the 
2nd of June following. 

The regiment, consisting of twenty-five officers and 
six hundred and fifty-two men, embarked at Hong 
Kong for Calcutta on the 20th of November, 1847. 

1848 The regiment arrived at Calcutta on the 10th of 
January, 1848, and occupied the barracks at Fort 
William, where it continued to be stationed on the 1st 
of June, 1848, at which period the record is concluded. 



THE ROYAL IRISH REGIMENT OF FOOT. 77 

The foregoing pages, after diligent research, contain, 1848 
as far as possible, a faithful detail of the services of 

the EIGHTEENTH, ROYAL IRISH, REGIMENT OF FOOT. 

The career of this highly honorable corps can only 
be appreciated as a public body, and as a portion 
of the military force of the British empire, after a 
perusal of its gallant deeds in the various situations 
and services on which it has been employed. 

The circumstance of its first formation in the reign 
of King Charles II., of its adhesion to King James II. 
on his succeeding to the British throne in 1685, and 
of the severe lest to which the army was exposed at the 
Revolution in 1688, all prove the value of the corps, 
and the difficulties with which its principal officers had 
to contend at a period when the English nation was 
endeavouring to rid itself of a sovereign of Popish 
principles, and to establish a Protestant Government. 

The decided conduct of the EIGHTEENTH, ROYAL 
IRISH, regiment on the commencement of the Revolu- 
tion in 1688, and throughout the contest in Ireland 
until 1691, evinced a steady loyalty and determina- 
tion, on which King William III. found he could rely. 

The same confidence was placed in this regiment 
by King William during the campaigns in Flanders 
from 1691 to 1697, for which the most distinguished 
honours were conferred by His Majesty on the corps 
on account of its heroic services. 

In the war of the Spanish Succession, during the 
reign of Queen Anne, from 1702 to 1712, the EIGH- 
TEENTH, ROYAL IRISH, regiment is recorded as having 
shared in the numerous sieges and victories under the 
Duke of Marlborough, as detailed in the Regimental 
Record. 

After the cessation of hostilities by the Treaty of 



78 HISTORICAL RECORD OF THE EIGHTEENTH, OR 

1848 Utrecht, in 1713,, the services of the regiment were 
equally efficient and useful in the British possessions, 
particularly at the island of Minorca, from whence it 
proceeded in 1 727 to Gibraltar, when the Spaniards 
again besieged that fortress. 

The ROYAL IRISH REGIMENT was again employed in 
Flanders during the war of the Austrian Succession, 
from 1743 to 1748. 

The regiment shared also in the arduous duties of 
the British troops employed during the early part of 
the American war, which commenced in 1775. 

The next important service on which the EIGHTEENTH, 
ROYAL IRISH, regiment was engaged, was the ever- 
memorable campaign of the British army in Egypt, 
which succeeded in repelling from that country the 
French army, which had vainly styled itself "invincible," 
and through the efforts of which Napoleon Bonaparte 
intended Jo open a route to India, and thereby disturb, 
if not annihilate, the British possessions in Asia. 

After returning from Egypt, the services of this 
valuable regiment were employed in guarding the 
colonial possessions in the West Indies for a period 
of twelve years, during which the British army acquired 
additional honours and distinctions by its services in 
the Peninsula, which terminated in 18J4, and after- 
wards by the decisive battle and overthrow of the 
French army at Waterloo. 

The EIGHTEENTH was employed on garrison duty 
from 1821 to 1832 in the islands of the Mediterranean. 

In 1837 the regiment was embarked for Ceylon, and in 
1 840 it formed part of the expedition to the Chinese seas, 
and by its gallantry eventually compelled the govern- 
ment of the " Celestial empire " to cede a portion of 
territory to the British Crown, and to pay an indemnity 



THE ROYAL IRISH REGIMENT OF FOOT. 79 

for losses sustained : the word China and the device of 1848 
the Dragon, authorized by Her Majesty to be borne on 
the colours and appointments of the regiment, are 
proud memorials of its services in this distant scene of 
warfare, which was a novel arena, not only to the 
EIGHTEENTH, but to European troops generally. The 
regiment was again employed during the military 
operations on the Canton river in 1847, and towards 
the close of that year proceeded to the East Indies. 

After a service of twelve years in the eastern parts of 
the world, the EIGHTEENTH, ROYAL IRISH, regiment has 
received instructions to be prepared to return to its 
native country, on being relieved by the ninety-sixth 
regiment from the New South Wales Colony. 

In drawing this summary, the compiler could not con- 
clude the record of the arduous services of so merito- 
rious a regiment, without an endeavour to do justice to 
its loyalty and devotedness to ten successive sovereigns, 
and to its zeal and usefulness in the cause of its country, 
during a period of one hundred and sixty-five years. 



1848. 



IROTAL 1E1SJHT JH.1EG1MTJE.HT 




lit* 1 



FOR CANNONS MILITARY RECORDS 



81 



SUCCESSION OF COLONELS 

OF THE 

EIGHTEENTH, 

OR THE ROYAL IRISH REGIMENT OF FOOT. 



ARTHUR VISCOUNT OF GRANARD. 

Appointed 1st April, 1684. 

ARTHUR FORBES, son of Sir Patrick Forbes, a Baronet of 
Nova Scotia, was a cavalry officer in the Royal array during 
the rebellion in the reign of King Charles I., and attained 
the rank of Colonel in 1646. In 1651 he held a considerable 
command in the north of Scotland, and after the defeat of 
the Scots army at Worcester on the 3rd of September, 1651, 
Colonel Forbes opposed the progress of the English under 
General Monk, afterwards Duke of Albemarle, but was 
eventually defeated, and fled to Ireland, where he was 
permitted by Oliver Cromwell to possess his paternal estate. 
He took an active part in bringing about the Restoration in 
1660, and was appointed one of the commissioners of the 
Court of Claims in Ireland : he was also nominated captain 
of an independent troop of horse, and elected a member of 
Parliament for Mullingar. He took an active part in pre- 
venting the breaking out of a conspiracy against the govern- 
ment in Ireland, in 1663 ; in 1670 he was sworn a member 
of the Privy Council, and nominated Marshal of the army, 
a rank not continued in the service; and in 1671 he was 
constituted one of the Lords Justices of Ireland. His 



82 SUCCESSION OF COLONELS. 

services were rewarded, in 1675, with the dignity of Baron 
Clanehugh, and VISCOUNT OP GRANARD ; and in April, 

1684, his Lordship was nominated Colonel of one of the 
regiments, formed of independent companies in Ireland, at 
that period, now the EIGHTEENTH, or the ROYAL IRISH 
regiment. In September following he was promoted to 
the rank of Lieut-General, and two months afterwards he was 
advanced to the dignity of EARL OF GRANARD. In March, 

1685, King James II. nominated the EARL OF GRANARD 
one of the Lords Justices of the kingdom, and he was also 
appointed Chairman of the Council ; in 1686 his Lordship 
resigned the colonelcy of the regiment in favour of his son, 
Arthur Lord Forbes. Being pressed upon to proceed with 
unusual severity against the Protestants, he wrote to the 
King for permission to resign ; but His Majesty wrote an 
answer with his own hand, requesting him to continue in 
office : he, however, advocated the cause of the Protestants 
with so much warmth, that he was dismissed by King James 
in March, 1689. The Earl of Granard attached himself 
to the interests of King William III. He was sworn of the 
Privy Council in December, 1690 ; and he commanded the 
troops at the reduction of Sligo, in 1691. 

The Earl of Granard built the Church of Castle-Forbes, 
and established the linen manufactory at that place. He 
died in 1694. 



ARTHUR LORD FORBES. 
Appointed 1st March, 1686. 

ARTHUR LORD FORBES, son of the Earl of Granard, held a 
commission in the army in Ireland in the reign of King 
Charles II., and in 16fr6 he succeeded his father in the 
colonelcy of the regiment which is now the EIGHTEENTH, or 
the ROYAL IRISH regiment. He was a spirited young 
nobleman, and succeeded in retaining more Protestants in 
his regiment than were to be found in any other corps in the 
army in Ireland. He joined the Prince of Orange at the 
Revolution in 1688, when he withdrew from the service. He 
succeeded to the dignity of EARL OF GRANARD on the 
decease of his father in 1694. He died in August, 1734. 



SUCCESSION OF COLONELS. 83 



SIR JOHN EDGEWORTH. 
Appointed 3lst December^ 1688. 

THIS officer held a commission in the army in the reign of 
King Charles II., and was appointed Captain of a non- 
regimented company of pikemen and musketeers in Ireland. 
He was afterwards promoted to the Majority of the Earl of 
Granard's regiment, now EIGHTEENTH, which corps he 
accompanied to England at the Revolution in 1688, when he 
joined the Prince of Orange's interest, and was promoted 
to the Colonelcy of his regiment. Being afterwards found 
guilty of irregularity in providing clothing for his regiment, 
he was dismissed the service. 



EDWARD EARL OP MEAT;I. 
Appointed 1st May, 1689. 

THE HONOURABLE EDWARD BRABAZON, second son of 
Edward, second Earl of Meath, was appointed Captain of a 
non-regimented company of pikemen and musketeers in the 
summer of 1661, and he was afterwards nominated keeper of 
the royal parks in Ireland, and ranger of Phoenix Park, near 
Dublin. He subsequently commanded a troop of cuirassiers ; 
but falling under the displeasure of the lord-lieutenant, the 
Earl of Essex, he was removed from his appointments : he 
was, however, restored to favour at a subsequent period. In 
1684 he succeeded, on the death of his brother, to the 
dignity of EARL OF MEATH. He joined the Prince of 
Orange at the Revolution of 1688, and in May, 1689, he was 
appointed Colonel of the EIGHTEENTH regiment, which 
corps he accompanied to Ireland, and ser\ed at the siege of 
Carrickfergus and at the battle of the Boyne ; he also 
evinced great gallantry at the siege of Limerick, where he 
was wounded. He was sworn a member of the Privy 
Council in December, 1690. After the deliverance of 
Ireland from the power of King James was accomplished, he 
chose to remain in that country in order to devote himself to its 
interests, and withdrew from the army. He died in 1 708. 



84 SUCCESSION OF COLONELS. 



FREDERICK HAMILTON. 

Appointed IQth December, 1692. 

FREDERICK HAMILTON rose to the command of one of the 
independent companies in Ireland in the reign of King 
Charles II., and in 1684 his company was incorporated in 
Lord Mountjoy's regiment. Being a zealous Protestant, 
Captain Hamilton was deprived of his commission by Earl 
Tyrconnel, and remained unemployed until the Revolution of 
1688, when King William III. gave him a company in 
Lord Forbes's, now the EIGHTEENTH foot, and promoted him 
to the Majority of the regiment. He accompanied the 
EIGHTEENTH to Ireland, served at the siege of Carrickfergus, 
the battle of the Boyne, and at the storming of Limerick, 
where he distinguished himself, and was promoted to the 
Lieut.-Colonelcy of the regiment, in succession to Lieut. - 
Colonel Newcomb, who was mortally wounded. He served 
at the siege of Athlone, and at the battle of Aghrim, in 1691 ; 
also at the second siege of Limerick : and in 1692 he com- 
manded the regiment in the expedition under Meinhardt 
Duke of Leinster ; in December of the same year he succeeded 
the Earl of Meath in the Colonelcy of the EIGHTEENTH 
regiment. He served the campaign of 1694 under King 
William, and in 1695 he distinguished himself at the siege 
of Namur, and was wounded at the assault of the Castle. In 
May, 1702, he was promoted to the rank of Brigadier-General, 
and the four regiments under his command were engaged in 
the sieges of Venloo and Ruremonde. He also commanded 
a brigade during the campaign of 1703 ; was promoted to 
the rank of Major-General on the 1st of February, 1704, and 
served the campaign of that year in Germany, taking part in 
gaining the victories at Schellenberg and Blenheim. Having 
become advanced in years and infirm, he retired from the 
service in 1705, Queen Anne giving him permission to sell 
the colonelcy of his regiment to Lieut.-General Ingoldsby. 



SUCCESSION OF COLONELS. 85 



RICHARD INGOLDSBY. 

Appointed 1st April, 1705. 

RICHARD INGOLDSBY entered the army in the reign of King 
Charles II., his first commission being dated the 13th of June, 
1667. He adhered to the Protestant interest at the Revolu- 
tion in 1688, and served under King William III., who 
promoted him to the Colonelcy of the Twenty-third Regiment 
in February, 1693. He commanded the Twenty-third at the 
siege of Namur, in 1695, and in June, 1696, he was promoted 
to the rank of Brigadier-General. On the breaking out of the 
war in 1701, he was sent to Holland with a body of British 
troops, and he highly distinguished himself during several 
campaigns under the great Duke of Marlborough. He was 
promoted to the rank of Major-General on the 9th of March, 
1702, and served in that capacity during the campaigns of 
that and the following year. In January, 1 704, he was pro- 
moted to the rank of Lieut.-General, and his name is found 
among the officers who distinguished themselves at the 
battles of Schellenberg and Blenheim. After acquiring a 
high reputation in the field, he was honoured with the 
appointments of one of Her Majesty's Lords Justices, and 
Master of the Horse for Ireland. He died on the 29th of 
January, 1712. 

RICHARD STEARNE. 
Appointed 18th February, 1712. 

THIS officer commences a journal of his services in the fol- 
lowing words : " In the year 1678 I got a commission from 
" King Charles II. to be Ensign to Captain John St. Ledger's 
" company, then one of the independent companies of Ireland ; 
" and in the following year I was made Lieutenant to the 
" same company. In the year 1684 all the independent 
" troops and companies in Ireland were incorporated into 
" regiments ; Captain St. Ledger's company being one of 
'' those that composed the regiment commanded by the Earl 
" of Granard " now the EIGHTEENTH, or ROYAL IRISH 



86 SUCCESSION OF COLONELS. 

regiment of foot. He accompanied his regiment to England 
at the Revolution in 1688, and on the 1st of March, 1689, he 
was appointed Captain of the company to which he belonged. 
He served with his regiment in Ireland, at the siege of 
Carrickfergus, the battle of the Boyne, the sieges of Limerick 
and Athlone, the battle of Aghrim, and the second siege of 
Limerick, besides several detached services. In 1692 he was 
promoted to the majority of his regiment. He served in the 
expedition under the Duke of Leinster ; and afterwards 
joining the army in Flanders, was at the siege of Namur, 
where his regiment distinguished itself and acquired the title 
of the ROYAL IRISH regiment : Lieut. -Colonel Ormsby being 
killed on this occasion, King William promoted Major 
STEARNE to the lieut.-colonelcy of the regiment. He served 
in the Netherlands and Germany during the whole of the 
wars of Queen Anne, was at the battles of Schellenberg, 
Blenheim, Ramilies, Oudenarde, and Malplaquet, and also at 
the forcing of the French lines in 1705, 1710, and 1711, 
and took part in numerous sieges, at which the EIGHTEENTH 
distinguished themselves. Lieut.-Colonel Stearne was pro- 
moted to the rank of Colonel in 1707, and to that of Brigadier- 
General in 1711 ; in 1712 he was rewarded with the colonelcy 
of his regiment ; he was also nominated Governor of the Royal 
Hospital at Dublin. He concludes the journal of his nume- 
rous, distinguished, and meritorious services in the following 
words : 

" In the month of May, 1717, the regiment received orders 
" to march to Portsmouth, and there I take my leave of them, 
" for, in the month of January following, His Majesty gave 
" me leave to resign my regiment to Colonel William Cosby, 
" after having served six crowned heads of England, and been 
" forty years attached to one company without ever being 
"removed from it; having made twenty-one campaigns; 
" having been in seven field-battles fifteen sieges seven 
" grand attacks on counterscarps and breaches two remark - 
" able retreats at the passing of four of the enemy's lines 
" besides several other petty actions ; and, through 
" God's assistance, never had one drop of blood drawn from 
" me in all those actions. After I had disposed of my 
regiment, I went to my government in Ireland." Brigadier- 
General Stearne died on the 1st of November, 1732. 



SUCCESSION OF COLONELS. 87 

WILLIAM COSBY. 

Appointed 24th December, 1717. 

WILLAM COSBY was many years an officer in the cavalry of 
the royal household, and rose to the rank of Lieutenant and 
Lieut. -Colonel of the first troop, now first regiment, of life 
guards ; from which he was promoted, in December, 1717, to 
the colonelcy of the EIGHTEENTH, or the ROYAL, IRISH 
regiment. He accompanied the EIGHTEENTH to Minorca, 
and commanded a detachment of five hundred men sent from 
that island to Gibraltar, when the Spaniards besieged that 
fortress in 1727. He was subsequently nominated Governor 
of the Leeward Islands, and in January, 1732, he was 
appointed Captain-General and Governor-in-Chief of New 
York and New Jersey, when he relinquished the colonelcy 
of his regiment. In 1735 he was promoted to the rank of 
Brigadier-General. He died on the 2nd of May, 1737. 

SIR CHARLES HOTHAM, BART. 

Appointed 1th January, 1732. 

CHARLES HOTHAM entered the army in the reign of Queen 
Anne, and served on the Continent under the great Duke of 
Marlborough. In 1723 he succeeded to the dignity of a 
Baronet. He was nominated to the colonelcy of the 
EIGHTEENTH, or the ROYAL IRISH regiment, in 1732, and 
removed to the second troop of horse grenadier guards in 
1735. He died in 1738. 

JOHN ARMSTRONG. 
Appointed 13th May, 1735. 

THIS officer entered the army in 1704, and served with re- 
putation under the celebrated John Duke of Marlborough. 
After distinguishing himself on several occasions he was pro- 
moted to the lieut.-colonelcy of the fifteenth regiment, and 
was promoted to the rank of Colonel in December, 1712. In 



88 SUCCESSION OF COLONELS. 

1717 he obtained the colonelcy of a newly-raised regiment, 
which was disbanded in the following year. He was rewarded 
with the colonelcy of the EIGHTEENTH, and promoted to the 
rank of Brigadier-General, in 1735, and in 1739 he was 
advanced to the rank of Major-General. He died on the 15th 
of April, 1742. 



SIR JOHN MOBDAUNT, K.B. 

Appointed 18th December, 1742. 

ON the 25th of August, 1721, this officer entered the army, 
and after a progressive service of several years he rose to the 
rank of Captain and Lieut.-Colonel in the third foot guards, 
from which he was promoted to the colonelcy of a newly- 
raised corps, now forty-seventh, in 1741, and was removed to 
the EIGHTEENTH regiment in the following year. Having 
been promoted to the rank of Brigadier- General in June, 1745, 
he commanded a brigade against the rebel army, and dis- 
tinguished himself, at the battle of Falkirk, on the 17th of 
January, 1746. He afterwards served under His Royal High- 
ness the Duke of Cumberland, and was detached with two 
regiments of dragoons and the Campbell Highlanders in pur- 
suit of the rebels on their retreat from Stirling. At the 
decisive battle of Culloden he commanded a brigade of in- 
fantry, and gained additional reputation ; and afterwards 
proceeding to the Netherlands, he distinguished himself at the 
head of a brigade at the battle of Val, in 1747. In the 
autumn of the same year he was promoted to the rank of 
Major-General ; he was afterwards removed to the twelfth 
dragoons, and in July, 1 749, to the fourth horse, now seventh 
dragoon guards ; in November following he was removed to 
the tenth dragoons. He was promoted to the rank of Lieut.- 
General in 1754, and to that of General in 1770. His services 
were also rewarded with the dignity of Knight of the Most 
Honourable Military Order of the Bath, and the government of 
Berwick. He died in October, 1780. 



SUCCESSION OF COLONELS, 



JOHN FOLLIGTT. 
Appointed 22nd December, 1747. 

AFTER serving with reputation in the subordinate commis- 
sions, this officer was promoted to the lieut.-colonelcy of the 
seventh horse, now sixth dragoon guards, in June, 1737, and 
his constant attention to all the duties of commanding officer 
of that distinguished corps was rewarded, in June, 1743, 
with the colonelcy of the sixty -second regiment (afterwards 
disbanded) ; from which he was removed, in 1 747, to the 
ROYAL, IRISH regiment. He was promoted to the rank of 
Major-General in 1754, and to that of Lieut.-General in 1758 ; 
he was also nominated Governor of Ross Castle. He died in 
January, 1762, at which period he was Member of Parliament 
for Sligo. 

SIR JOHN SEBRIGHT, BART. 
Appointed 1st April, 1762. 

JOHN SEBRIGHT was many years an officer in the first foot 
guards, in which corps he was promoted to the rank of 
Captain and Lieut.-Colonel on the 2nd of May, 1749 ; and in 
October, 1758, he was nominated to the colonelcy of the 
eighty-third foot. In 1761 he was promoted to the rank of 
Major-General ; and was removed to the ROYAL, IRISH regi- 
ment in the following year. On the decease of his brother 
in 1765, he succeeded to the dignity of BARONET. He was 
promoted to the rank of Lieut.-General in 1770, and to that 
of General in 1782. His decease occurred on the 23rd of 
February, 1794. 

SIR JAMES MURRAY, BART. 
Appointed 26ih February ', 1794. 

JAMES MURRAY served in the army in the Seven Years' War, 
and was appointed Major in the ninety-seventh foot in April 
1762 : in the following year his regiment was disbanded. In 
1771 he succeeded, on the decease of his father, to the dignity 
of BARONET. He was promoted to the rank of Lieut.-Colonel 
in 1772 ; and served with reputation in the American war, 
particularly at the defence of St. Christopher. In 1789 he 
was honoured with the appointment of Aide-de-camp to the 

H 



90 SUCCESSION OF COLONELS. 

King, with the rank of Colonel ; and in 1793 he was appointed 
Adjutant-General to the army in Flanders, commanded by His 
Royal Highness the Duke of York, and promoted to the rank 
of Major-General ; and while employed on the Staff in Flanders 
he was nominated Colonel of the EIGHTEENTH regiment, his 
commission b^ing dated the 26th of February, 1794. Having 
married the Countess of Bath, he assumed the surname and 
arms of PULTENEY. In the summer of 1800 he commanded 
an expedition against the fortress of Ferrol, in Spain ; after 
viewing the town and defences he resolved not to lose time 
in attacking this place, but to join the armament under Lieut.- 
General Sir Ralph Abercromby. In 1807 he was nominated 
Secretary at War, and held that appointment two years: in 
1808 he was promoted to the rank of General. His decease 
occurred on the 26th of April, 1811, and was occasioned by 
an injury received from the explosion of a powder-flask while 
shooting on his estate at Buckenham, in Norfolk. 

JOHN II. LORD HUTCHINSON, K.B. 
Appointed l^th April, 1811. 

THE Honourable John Hely Hutchinson entered the army in 
January, 1774, as Cornet in the eighteenth light dragoons, 
and in October, 1776, he was promoted Captain of a company 
in the sixty-seventh regiment: in 1777 he was elected a 
Member of Parliament for Cork. On the 2 1st of September, 
1781, he was advanced to Major in the seventy-seventh, or 
Atholl Highlanders, in which corps he rose to the rank of 
Lieut.-Colonel in 1783; but his regiment was disbanded soon 
after the termination of the American war. Having pre- 
viously studied tactics at Strasburg, he again visited the 
Continent, and acquired additional information on military 
subjects. Soon after the commencement of the French revo- 
lutionary war he returned to the United Kingdom ; was pro- 
moted to the rank of Colonel on the 1st of March, 1794 ; and, 
taking great interest in raising the ninety-fourth regiment, 
he was appointed Colonel of that corps in October. He 
served two campaigns in Flanders, as extra Aide-de-camp to 
Sir Ralph Abercromby. He was promoted to the rank of 
Major-General in 1796 ; and, serving in Ireland during the 
rebellion in 1798, he was second in command at the action at 
Castlebar. He also served in the expedition to Holland in 



SUCCESSION OF COLONELS. 91 

1799, arid honourable mention is made of his gallant conduct 
in the public despatches. Having 1 given proof of his capa- 
bilities as a General officer, he was nominated second in 
command in the expedition to Egypt, under Lieut.-General 
Sir Ralph Abercromby ; and after the death of that officer, 
from wounds received in the action of the 21st of March, the 
command of the troops devolved on Major-General Hutchin- 
son, who found himself suddenly placed at the head of the 
army under circumstances of a peculiarly difficult character. 
In the subsequent operations in Egypt he evinced talent and 
energy, sustaining the honour of his Sovereign, promoting 
the glory of his country, and forcing the French " Army 
of the East" to evacuate Egypt. For his services in this 
enterprise he twice received the thanks of both Houses of 
Parliament ; he gained the approbation of his Sovereign, was 
nominated a Knight of the Bath, received the Order of the 
Crescent from the Grand Seignior, was elevated to the peerage 
by the title of BARON HUTCHINSON OP ALEXANDRIA and of 
Knocklofty in the county of Tipperary, and received an 
important addition to his income : he was also nominated 
Governor of Stirling Castle. In 1803 his Lordship was pro- 
moted to the rank of Lieut.-General. 

The subsequent services of Lord Hutchinson were of a dip- 
lomatic character: in November, 1806, he proceeded on an 
extraordinary mission to the Prussian and Russian armies ; and 
he afterwards proceeded to the court of St. Petersburg. In 
1806 he was nominated to the colonelcy of the fifty-seventh 
regiment, and was removed, in 1811, to the ROYAL IRISH 
regiment: in 1813 he was promoted to the rank of General. 
On the decease of his brother, in 1825, he succeeded to the 
title of EARL OF DONOUGHMORE. He died on the 6th of July, 
1832. 

MATTHEW LORD AYLMER. 
Appointed 23rd July, 1832. 



THE END. 



London : Printed by WILLIAM CLOWKS and SONS, Stamford Street, 
For IIjr Majesty's Stationery Office. 



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